The photo above has long been said to be Black Hawk. This is a photo of a drawing of a Kiowa Apache man called "Black Hawk." This photo originates from the archives of the Smithsonian. And it's interesting the name "Black Hawk" is not in the Apache language. There is no known photo of Utah's Timpanogos Chief Black Hawk. (See: Timpanogos Nation Website)
The Shoshone were first called the Chichimec (the Dog People) then there was three divisions, the Chichimec became the Nokoni, the Aztec, and Hopi (Moki). The Nokoni became the Shoshoni Nation which split into four bands, the Snake, Bannock, Comanche and Paiute. The Timpanogos descend from the Snake. Early explorers reffered to the Timpanogos as the Eutahs. The term "Eutah" derives from an Arapaho word E-wu-ha-wu-si meaning "people who use grass or bark for their lodges." All Indians living in grass lodges or bark structures would fall into this category. The shortened version Ewuha or Eutah are terms used by early trappers and explorers who traveled the Utah area when referring to the Native peoples they encountered who spoke Snake-Shoshone.According to The Dominguez Escalante Journal: Their Expedition Through Colorado Utah Arizona and New Mexico in 1776 , Escalante describes having come in contact with a Native peoples who called themselves "Timpanogostzis" whose leader was Turunianchi, who occupied what is now known as Utah. So it follows when the Mormon pioneers led by Brigham Young arrived in Utah territory in 1847, the Native peoples they first encountered were the Snake-Shoshoni Timpanogos Indian Tribe led by the seven grandsons of Turunianchi Tabby, Wakara, Arapeen, Sanpitch, Grospean, Amman, and Sowiette. Sanpitch was the father of Black Hawk. (Learn More)
During the years of the 1700's to the early 1800's trappers would all
but empty the rivers and streams of Oregon, Idaho and Utah of the beaver
population. Literally millions of pounds of pelts would be shipped to
Europe making fur merchants wealthy beyond belief. During this time and
subsequent years to follow the British, French and Americans would divvy
up Indian land, waging war against each other when necessary to gain
The horse was sought after by all the Indian tribes which quickly
brought the Timpanogos/Shoshoni Nation into power. They became the pivotal source
and supplier of horses to all the other tribes. Once they acquired the gun
they were a fierce and proud people.
Through it all the Timpanogos would
emerge victorious having survived wave after wave of Euro-invasions. So
when the Mormons arrived in 1847 and settled in the arid Salt Lake
valley the valley had long become the crossroads of the west as
trappers, explorers and the like passed through on their way to Oregon,
and California. But an old medicine chief Wuna Mucca of the Timpanogos had
prophesied the coming of the missionaries decades before their arrival.
And come they did, to worship God almighty, to save the heathens from
hell, and get rich. (See: The Story of Black Hawk)
Shoshone communities were based upon true democracy. There were no "Chiefs." No one person was above all others. Every individual was respected equally. Even animals and all things Creator created were seen by Native peoples as having a purpose, and each possessing special gifts and talents. When decisions were made within Native communities everyone had to be in agreement before action was taken. Within the communities each family took on particular roles, for example medicine people, warriors, weavers, hunters and gatherers etc. were the responsibility of individual families respectfully. Elders, who were the old and wise, they had the greatest influence in the community. They were the spokespersons, teachers and keepers of wisdom. And so it was that for non-Indians, as the whiteman encountered Indian peoples they were often confused by Indian ways. At times white's would assume an individual who spoke on behalf of a tribe was the "Chief." Leadership in Native communities was situational. Individuals were asked by the tribe to lead them according to the situation and the persons experience and ability. To this day Indian tribes do not have "Chiefs", they have Councils and Committees. And so it follows that as we read the histories we see large numbers of "chiefs" and "sub-Chiefs", and so it is that one-sided accounts can be very confusing and misleading. (See American Indian Protocols)
Choosing a Leader: According the Shoshone I have met with and had long conversations about how leaders were chosen, never is a leader self appointed. The process begins at birth essentially. Being born into a specific bloodline of leaders helps but is not always a guarantee of leadership. Children who show attributes of a leader are groomed to become one. However, their communities being democratic have the ultimate say. A leader must have proven to the community over time that they have the skills, talent, and are exemplary individuals of the communities sacred and traditional beliefs.
Depending on the situation where a leader is needed, a worthy person is picked and asked if they would accept the communities request to lead them. If that individual agrees then he is recogized by all as their leader for that specific situation. And when the job is complete then that chosen person again takes his place among his people as one of them, his leadership role completed.
When problems arise within the community, the community comes together and the problem is discussed. Ideally they all would sit in a circle as equals, and often they may have a Talking Stick, or some object of sacred importance that is held in the hand of the person speaking. While the person with the Talking Stick is speaking, no one else is allowed to speak or interrupt until that person is done and hands the Talking Stick to the next person, and so on until everyone has had the opportunity to talk. They continue in this manner until they reach a conclusion when a vote is taken on the matter at hand. If everyone agrees then all proceed accordingly. If one person does not agree then they must continue in their discussion until such time everyone is satisfied and the vote is unanimous.
I participated in several of these circles and it was extraordinary how the method works. Even children were allowed in the discussions and their opinions or suggestions were considered by all as equal. It made me wonder what they were talking about in those old histories when they called the Native people heathens. For it was explained to me these methods of selecting leaders and solving problems are the traditional ways of their ancient ancestors.
Timpanogos Leader Black Hawk Declares War
Manti, Utah April 9th 1865
Peter Gottfredson Author Indian Depredations in Utah
Phillip B Gottfredson Black Hawk War Historian
War Is Declared!
"During the winter of 1864-65, a small band of Indians was camped near Gunnison, Sanpete County (Utah). It is said that they contracted Smallpox, and that many died. The Indians seemed to think that the white people were to blame in some way for this and were threatening to kill the whites and steal their horses and cattle. Arrangements were consequently made for a meeting between the Indians and the whites at Manti on the 9th of April, 1865, to talk over matters.
On that date a number of prominent Timpanogos came to Manti. They met at Jerome Kempton's place, and it appeared that an understanding would be arrived at, but a young Chief (Yene-wood) also known as Jake Arapeen (son of Arapeen) could not be pacified. "John Lowry, believed drunk at the time, told the Chief to keep quiet, when someone yelled, ‘look out he's getting his arrows!’ Lowry jerked the Chief (by his hair) off of his horse, and was about to abuse him, when some men stepped in and broke them up."-Indian Depredations in Utah - Peter Gottfredson Indian Depredations in Utah 1919 ( Learn More )
Chief Arapeen or Yene-wood, being dishonored before his people, saw it as the final blow of a long endurance of insults and depredations over nearly 15 years that had rallied the Timpanogos under the new leadership of Chief Black Hawk to declare war against the Mormons. This marked the beginning of what the whites later dubbed "The Black Hawk War."
1865- Brigham Young, at the point of heightened frustration, told his followers; "Seek out the murdering Indians and slay them;" but in light of the political situation he commanded them "to keep quiet about it. Do your duty and say nothing to any man," he ordered, "and call upon nobody to help you for you are able to help yourselves." Utah's Black Hawk War by John Alton Peterson.
1847 was the year the first Mormon pioneers arrived, and it was not until 1865 when war chief Black Hawk, who was also at the point of heightened frustration having endured years of bloody confrontations and assaults on his people and land, declared war. The white population had dramatically increased to about 50,000. At the same time the Ute population is estimated to have been over 40.000 thousand but many were dying from Measles, Smallpox and Tuberculosis epidemics. The natural environment was drastically altered due to the Mormons’ farming of domesticated crops and animals, seriously interfering with the Timpanogos’ primary source of food. Settlers plowed under vital grasslands, destroying native plants essential to the Timpanogos’ diet. Settlers continued to alter the natural environment by logging, redirecting streams for irrigation, recklessly over-fishing rivers, and killing deer, elk, and buffalo. As both Indian and non-Indian competed for the Timpanogos’ land, tensions grew exponentially.
The Black Hawk War in itself was not a single incident. Over 150 deadly confrontations took place over a seven-year period throughout Utah territory and spilled over into Colorado, Idaho, and Wyoming as tens of thousands of Mormon Pioneers poured in at the rate of 3000 a month.
Note: Leaders of the Timpanogos nation were chosen by succession. Wakara, Jake Arapeen, and Black Hawk all descended from a long line of leaders going back centuries in time. They were the 'royal bloodline’ of theTimpanogos, and all were related to one another. Simply put, one had to be born into the family bloodline to become a leader.
Wild West: The Legacy of Mountain Meadows By Will Bagley
At dawn on Monday, September 7, 1857, Major John D. Lee of the Nauvoo Legion, Utah’s territorial militia, led a ragtag band of 60 or 70 Latter-day Saints, better known as Mormons, and a few Indian freebooters in an assault on a wagon train from Arkansas.
The emigrants, now known to history as the Fancher Party, were camped at Mountain Meadows, an alpine oasis on the wagon road between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. The party, led by veteran plainsmen familiar with the California Trail and its variants, consisted of a dozen large, prosperous families and their hired hands. The wagon train comprised 18 to 30 wagons pulled by ox and mule teams, plus several hundred cattle and a number of blooded horses the men were driving to California’s Central Valley.
The company included about 140 men, women and children—the women and children outnumbered the able-bodied men 2-to-1. As daylight broke in the remote Utah Territory valley, a volley of gunfire and a shower of arrows ripped into the wagon camp from nearby ravines and hilltops, immediately killing or wounding about a quarter of the adult males. The surviving men of the Fancher Party leveled their lethal long rifles at their hidden, painted attackers and stopped the brief frontal assault in its tracks. The Arkansans pulled their scattered wagons into a circle l and quickly improved their wagon fort, digging a pit to protect the women and children from stray projectiles. Cut off from any source of water and under continual gunfire, the emigrants fended off their assailants for five long, hellish days.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Mountain Meadows Massacre
"Part of the Mormon wars Mountain Meadows massacre Date September 7–11, 1857 Location Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory, United States Deaths 120–140 members of the Baker–Fancher wagon train Non-fatal injuries Around 17 Accused Utah Territorial Militia (Iron County district), Paiute Native American auxiliaries Weapons Guns, Bowie knives The Mountain Meadows Massacre was a series of attacks on the Baker–Fancher emigrant wagon train, at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah. The attacks began on September 7, 1857, and culminated on September 11, 1857, resulting in the mass slaughter of the emigrant party by members of the Utah Territorial Militia from the Iron County district and aided by Native American allies. The militia, officially called the Nauvoo Legion, was composed of southern Utah's Mormon settlers (members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the LDS Church). Intending to leave no witnesses and thus prevent reprisals, the perpetrators killed all the adults and older children—about 120 men, women, and children in total. Seventeen children, all younger than seven, were spared.
The wagon train, mostly families from Arkansas, was bound for California on a route that passed through the Utah Territory, during a conflict later known as the Utah War. After arriving in Salt Lake City, the Baker–Fancher party made their way south, eventually stopping to rest at Mountain Meadows. While the emigrants were camped at the meadow, nearby militia leaders, including Isaac C. Haight and John D. Lee, joined forces to organize an attack on the wagon train.
Intending to give the appearance of Native American aggression, the militia's plan was to arm some Southern Paiute Native Americans and persuade them to join with a larger party of their own militiamen—disguised as Native Americans—in an attack. During the militia's first assault on the wagon train the emigrants fought back, and a five-day siege ensued. Eventually fear spread among the militia's leaders that some emigrants had caught sight of white men and had likely discovered the identity of their attackers. As a result militia commander William H. Dame ordered his forces to kill the emigrants.
By this time the emigrants were running low on water and provisions, and allowed some approaching members of the militia—who carried a white flag—to enter their camp. The militia members assured the emigrants they were protected and escorted them from the hasty fortification. After walking a distance from the camp, the militiamen, with the help of auxiliary forces hiding nearby, attacked the emigrants and killed all of them that they thought were old enough to be potential witnesses to report the attack.
Following the massacre, the perpetrators hastily buried the victims, leaving the bodies vulnerable to wild animals and the climate. Local families took in the surviving children, and many of the victims' possessions were sold by auction. Investigations, after interruption by the American Civil War, resulted in nine indictments during 1874. Of the men indicted, only John D. Lee was tried in a court of law. After two trials in the Utah Territory, Lee was convicted by a jury, sentenced to death, and executed by a Utah firing squad on March 23, 1877. Today, historians attribute the massacre to a combination of factors, including war hysteria about possible invasion of Mormon territory and hyperbolic Mormon teachings against outsiders, which were part of the excesses of the Mormon Reformation period. Scholars debate whether senior Mormon leadership, including Brigham Young, directly instigated the massacre or if responsibility lay with the local leaders in southern Utah."
JOHN LOWRY STATES CAUSE OF BLACK HAWK WAR
JANUARY 25th 1894
Excerpt from Indian Depredations in Utah by Peter Gottfredson
On January the 25th the Black Hawk War Veterans held their first re-union, at the Reynolds Hall at Springville. There John Lowry gave his personal account of the cause of the Black Hawk War.
"The occasion of the present reunion, being opportune, in order to correct any erroneous impression that has become widespread as to what precipitated the Black Hawk War, I take this opportunity or means of placing the facts before the world.
But first let me state that I came here as a pioneer, and took part in the first battle fought with the Indians under the command of Col. John Scott. And, I have in one way or another been associated with almost every Indian trouble in the early history of this region. I served as Indian interpreter for years in Manti and have passed through many close places in dealing with the red man; at times having been surrounded by them I knew that one word, look, or action would have cost me my life in the event I showed fear. A man who betrayed cowardice might be killed without any consideration, but a brave man was always approached with consideration. Among them were some strange traditions and peculiar notions in relation to their spiritual life. They served Satan, not God; the idea being to placate the power bent on doing injury. The elder brother (God) was good, and never harmed anyone, but Satan was served through fear. For instance, should a white man write the name of an Indian on a slip of paper and give it out that it would be sent to Satan, the Indian would sacrifice his life if necessary to get possession of it. In 1864 a small band of Indians was wintering at Gunnison, and many of them died, and they found reason for their trouble in conclusion that the Mormons had written their names and sent them to Satan, and he had caused death to come upon them. So, in their councils, they were directed by their chief to stop the sickness among them by killing (Mormons) in retaliation. In February, Black Hawk informed me what the Indians were going to do when the snow went off. They would kill the Mormons and eat Mormon beef. I immediately went to my Bishop with the information. He thought, as did many others, that it was just Indian talk and amounted to nothing; but the Indians told me several times what they intended to do and so I went the second time to the Bishop. My story was received by his saying ‘There are not enough of them.’ I then told him it did not matter how few the number as long as they entertained the idea that it was the wish of Satan, they would accomplish their purpose regardless of results to them.
Shortly after, I learned they were killing cattle. I had some cattle on this range myself, and in my search for them, I found the skull of an ox which I owned. I operated a grist mill at the time, and the Indians would come there for grinding, and I remember it was about the sixth of March that I informed them that I had found the skull of my ox and asked them why they had killed it, as I had always been a friend to them, as had the Mormon people, generally. I talked to them in such a way that they agreed to pay me for the animal which had been killed by fetching me a horse, and they did so the next day. I agreed to meet with them at Manti about the eighth of April and talk the matter over of their killing our cattle.
Accordingly, the council took place. It appeared the difficulty would be settled amicably, but a certain young Indian present, whose father had died during the winter, continued to halloo and make demonstrations, saying that he would eat Mormon beef and kill Mormons when the snow went off. I told him a time or two to stop and to permit me to finish my talk. Just then someone called out ‘lookout, he is getting his arrows!’ I rode up to him and turned him off his horse, and pulled him to the ground. The bystanders interfered and we separated. I had fully exposed what they intended to do.
The next day, as our people were out hunting cattle, a man named Peter Ludvigson was killed. I have always taken the position that that talk with the Indians ‘showed their hand.’ I believe they started hostilities sooner than they would have done had not the incident above mentioned occurred. But the trouble would have come just the same. I am confident that many lives were saved, because it put the people on their guard. The chief, Black Hawk, told Charles Whitlock of Ephraim the same thing as had been told me concerning the intention of the Indians. These are the facts as to the starting of the Black Hawk Indian depredations. In those early days it was at times imperative that harsh measures should be used. Hamilton killed an Indian dog, and whipped some Indians too, but that didn't start a war; I threw an Indian out of my house and kicked him off the place, and no war came of it. We had to do these things, or be run over by them. It was a question of supremacy between the white man and the Indian.
I have patiently born the stigma placed upon me, for I knew the facts, and those who still persist at looking upon me as guilty of precipitating the Black Hawk War I will say this, that I appeal from their decision to a higher court---Our Creator, who will ultimately judge all men.
Signed John Lowry.
Stamped with--- Commissioners of Indian War Records Seal.
Utah Black Hawk War Treaties
There were no treaties made between the Timpanogos and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or the state of Utah. They were only agreements. Only the federal government had the authority to make treaties with the Indian people.
- Floyd O'Neil
Even so, according to Utah history accounts, "treaties" were made. But they were never ratified by the United States Government. Yet the Native people were made to believe they were legal and honored those agreements, whereas the Church changed and modified those agreements at will.
The following are the words of Timpanogos leaders (brothers) expressing how
they felt about signing treaties. The year was 1865. They were
discussing the Spanish Fork Treaty:
Chief Kanosh spoke (Bean interpreting)
"We have agreed that four chiefs shall do this talking. I do not see
what use it would be to trade the land where there are so few of us
whatever we would trade for would be all gone soon whether blankets or
hats or shirts or money the money would soon go in the stores and the
other things would soon be gone. If the Americans buy the land where
would the Mormons who live here go? (The Timpanogos had been told by Brigham
Young if the Timpanogos don't turn over the land to the Mormons the U.S.
Government would take it anyway.) Will the lord take them up to his
country? I think this is the Mormon's land, the bishops land with the
Utahs let them all live here together. I do not want to cut the land in
two let it all remain as it is. It is all right to let us stay where we
are let me stay at corn creek and visit back and forth. Suppose Brigham
our eldest brother was to die where would the Indians all run to when we
know he is at salt lake city it is all
right Brigham is the great captain of all for he does not get mad when
he hears of his brothers and friends being killed as the California
captains do the best thing is for the superintendent to give us our
blankets and shirts and not talk about trading the land but let us live
and be friendly together give all of us blankets and shirts squaws and
all and do not make us feel poor but clothe us up."
Sanpitch rose to speak Bean
"I do not question the paper but I do not want to trade the land nor
the title to the land it used to be lord's land but now it is the
Mormon's land and ours. The maker of the land is probably dead and
buried now. (?) But this is good heavy land lots of water and rocks and
I want it to stay here and us to stay here with it. The whites make
farms get wood and live here on the land and we never traded the land
let them live here and us live here too. (While speaking the chief
became increasingly excited and closed angrily.) If the talk is for us
to trade the land in order to get the presents I do not want any
blankets or any clothing I would rather go without than to give up my
title to the land I occupy."
Brigham Young rose to speak Huntington
"San pitch Sow e ett Tabby and all of you I want you to understand
what I say to you I am looking for your welfare if you do not sell your
land to the government they will take it whether you are willing to sell
it or not this is the way they have done in California and Oregon if you
go to Uintah they will build you houses make you a farm give you cows
oxen clothing blankets and many other things you will want and then the
treaty that colonel Irish has here gives you the privilege of coming
back here on a visit you can fish hunt pick berries dig roots and we can
visit together the land does not belong to you nor to me nor to the
government it belongs to the lord but our father at Washington is
disposed to make you liberal
presents to let the Mormons live here if you will go over there and have
your houses built and get your property and money we are perfectly
willing you should visit with us do you understand that Kanosh?"
Kanosh and others "We do"
Young "We feel to do you good and I know that this treaty is just as
liberal and does everything for you and for your people that can be done
now if you can understand this you can see at once that we do not want
anything to wrong any of you Indians it is enough."
Tabby spoke Bean interpreter
"The hearts of the Indians are full they
want to think wait until tomorrow let us go back to our lodges and talk
and smoke over what has been said today the Indians are not ready now to
give up the land. They never thought of such a thing."
Sow e ett Bean interpreter
"I am the father of you all. I have
always been a friend of the Americans Mr.. Young he has never thrown away
my friendship for the Americans. Superintendent Irish that is what
everybody says of you. After awhile Brigham and the Mormons came here I
saw him and he was my son my friend when I met Young we talked and
understood each other. Me and my children the Utah's and Brigham and his
children. When some of my children stole horses and acted bad did I
break my friendship? No never. I do not want to see it. I am old my
heart is very weak now but it is good."
Though they agreed to the terms of the
so called Treaty, and the Timpanogos's lived up to their words, aside from some
token gifts given to the Timpanogos's Brigham never kept his promises. The
Treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Government while the Mormon took
away hundreds of thousands of square miles of land and forced the Timpanogos
onto the Uinta reservation where nearly 50% died from starvation. It was
a matter of which of the three would control the land, the Timpanogos, the
Mormons, or the United States Government. A year
later Sanpitch was murdered. (See: Black Hawk War Treaties)
The Old Peace Treaty Tree
1866 July-August Bishop Canute Peterson of Ephraim, Utah paid a visit to the ailing Timpanogos leader Black Hawk who had been wounded in battle at Gravely Ford near Richfield, Utah. Taking gifts of sugar, hams, bread, beads, molasses, tea, coffee, tobacco, flour, medicines and clothing. The Chief was grateful for the presents and a friendship developed, which put a partial end to the hostilities. Five important chiefs called upon Canute Peterson's home and established peace pacts. As they talked, Sarah Peterson prepared a meal of the good things that could be brought from the cellar and pantry. After the meal, Black Hawk and Canute went across the road and smoked the pipe of peace under the old juniper tree, now referred to as the "peace treaty tree." The old Juniper tree still stands on the west bank of the creek. They agreed that they would not fight as long as water continued to run in the creek. A Black Hawk Peace Treaty marker was erected there in 1987. (See the Peace Treaty Tree story here.)
Chief Tabby Story
In the spring of 1867 at Heber City, a Timpanogos was captured after butchering a cow. He expected to be killed but Bishop Murdock told him he would be released if he would carry a personal message to Chief Tabby requesting a meeting to negotiate an end to the long and needless war. After Chief Tabby received Joseph’s message, a government Indian agent tried to meet with Tabby but Tabby said he would only talk with “Old Murdock!”
1867 Aug.. 12th several accounts explain that while near the Uintah reservation Black Hawk and his warriors in a prearranged meeting, met with Indian Superintendent Franklin Head. The Indian people, it appears, had respect for Franklin. Well, it is said that Black Hawk told him that he and his warriors were tired of fighting and wanted peace.
Black Hawk, with his massive army could have caused far more depredations to the saints, and certainly had just cause. But in a surprising change of tactics he elected to give up his campaign of vengeance to take a more altruistic course. But, at that moment all hopes of there ever being freedom, or holding onto their land... was gone. And
knowing that the Transcontinental Railroad would soon be completed meant an even greater influx of Anglos into Utah.
The Chief knew what he was doing. Taking upon himself the agony of his people, Black Hawk handed Franklin his knife and would ask him to cut off his hair to symbolically demonstrate his sincerity in wanting peace. To understand what happened here, we need to examine closely the cultural beliefs of the Utah Indian before we can appreciate this powerful gesture. This was no small matter reader, and is well worth the effort to understand for it underscores the humanity and humility of
as a leader. Making a personal atonment was common all the way down to south America among the Mayan. Black Hawk is not surrendering, he changing his tactics to ensure the survival of his people. Remarkable person to make such a gesture.
1867 August 17th, Black Hawk met with his uncle Chief Tabby, who had made preparations to join his warriors with Black Hawk's men. Tabby had sent the women and children to an area where they would be safe, it was time to settle the score with the Mormons. But, Black Hawk convinced his uncle that it would be better to end the war. The odds were clearly against them, to continue would mean certain annihilation of their people.
1867 August 19th, hundreds of Northern Timpanogos people accompanied Chief Tabby and his six sub-chiefs went to Heber City. They went directly to Tabby's old friend Joseph Murdock’s home at 115 East 300 North where they camped in his yard and pasture. The following day, August 20, four of Murdock’s five wives who were living in Heber City, and the townsfolk prepared a feast on a lot owned by John Carroll. This lot is located across the street from the Murdock home. A large pit was dug to roast enough beef to feed everyone. Each woman had been asked to bake a dozen loaves of bread. Rows of tables were loaded with corn and whatever the townsfolk could find in their pantries and larders to feed their guests.
The feasting and talk lasted all day. Murdock and Tabby exchanged a few simple gifts. The leaders then went across the street to an upstairs room in Murdock’s home where a peace pipe was smoked and a treaty of friendship was signed. Chief Tabby signed his name and the six sub-chiefs made their marks.
This peace agreement ended the fighting between the settlers in Heber Valley and the Northern Timpanogos people. It was one of the first agreements in a series of peace pacts made between Mormon settlers and Timpanogos leaders that aledgly lead to the eventual end of the Black Hawk War.
The news of Black Hawk's tactical maneuver spread quickly. Brigham Young grasped the moment, and took credit for having reconciled the war through vigilance, and kindness, underscoring his policy “to feed them and not fight them” had paid off. The Rocky Mountain News paper quoted Brigham Young's boasting, "If you want to get rid of the Indians try and civilize them," speaks to Brigham's 'two hearts.' See Brigham's Discourses here.)
Black Hawk did not surrender to Brigham Young. Taking upon himself the
agony of defeat, and the humiliation of his people, if he surrendered,
he surrendered to a higher power, for he knew it was futile and wrong to
expose his people to more torment, while fighting a loosing battle. But
the Chief's fight for freedom didn't end here. He follows his heart and
changes his strategy as he campaigns for peace three more years prior to
his death in 1870. ( See treaties click here )
In many ways the Native people of Utah continue to suffer following the Black Hawk War. They continue to suffer, from limited land-base, scattered and substandard homes sites, intertribal political strife, poverty, poor health, and ineffective educational programs for their children. In 1861 President Lincoln set aside five million acres of land which became known as the Uinta Reservation. The Colorado 10th District Court ruled in a recent case, UTE INDIAN TRIBE OF THE UINTA OURAY RESERVATION vs STATE OF UTAH, remains intact.
The Paiute suffered again late in their history, "when, during the 1950s, after decades of failed policies and programs, the U.S. government under President Eisenhower implemented the Relocation/Termination Programs as the official Indian policy of the Federal Government" and as a result their reservation lands where taken from the them.
Native American Indians were not given citizenship status until 1924. In Utah the right to vote was not granted to Utah Indians until in 1990's.
The American Indian Religious Act of 1978 extended the right to Native Indians to protect sacred lands religious practices, Rare film footage taken at a demonstration on the steps of the capital building in Salt Lake reveals blatant opposition to religious freedom in 1983. Native Indians continue to struggle for their rights to this day.
The Bear River Maassacre
The massacre at Bear River (Known as massacre at Boa Ogoi by the Lemhi Shoshone) occurred January 29, 1863. It was the third out of six massacres in Utah, but by far one the worst ever in U.S. history. Over five hundred Shoshoni, innocent of any wrong doing, were slain by Mormon militia and U.S. army commander Colonel Patrick Edward Connor—among them, old men, 90 women and children. After the slaughter ended, soldiers went through the Indian village raping women and using axes to bash in the heads of women and children who were already dying of wounds, "many of the Squaws were killed because they would not submit to lie down and be ravished." Eyewitness William Hull wrote: "Never will I forget the scene, dead bodies were everywhere. I counted eight deep in one place and in several places they were three to five deep; all in all we counted nearly four hundred; two-thirds of this number being women and children. We found two Indian women alive whose thighs had been broken by the bullets. Two little boys and one little girl about three years of age were still living. The little girl was badly wounded, having eight flesh wounds in her body ..."
Chief Bear Hunter and sub-Chief Lemhi both were killed. Mormon troops led by a United States Army Colonel, burned 75 Indian lodges, took possession of 1,000 bushels of wheat and flour, and 175 Shoshone horses. While the troops cared for their wounded and took their dead back to Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City for burial, hundreds of Indians' bodies were left on the field for the wolves and crows for nearly two years. Brigham Young obliged the federal governments request by supplying Connor with cavalry troops from the Utah Militia. Although the Mormon settlers in Cache Valley
expressed their gratitude for "the movement of Col. Connor as an intervention of the Almighty" in their behalf, the Bear River Massacre
was a brushed-aside-ignored-history in Utah. - John Alton Peterson Utah's Black Hawk War - Rod Miller's Massacre at Bear River (Also see video Bear River Massacre - with Will Bagley)
"The Bear River Massacre has been ignored. It was not in the interest of key players—the military and the Mormons—to remember.." - Salt Lake Tribune
The six massacres in Utah resulted in a total of some 766 deaths of Native Americans in Utah.
ARAPEEN - Brother of Walkara, One of the seveen brothers being Tabby, Sanpitch, Arapeen, Grospean, Sowette, Ammon, also grandson of Turunianchi. (See Timpanogos history)
JAKE ARAPEEN son of Arapeen - there several spellings for Arapeen, direct descentedants prefer the spelling "Arapeen."
ANTONGUER aka Antonga aka Antoñgua aka Black Hawk - Historical accounts use the name Antonga, or Antonguer saying that Black Hawk went by this name also. Names were often spelled phonetically. Accounts also theorize that the name is French and that the name may have been given to Black Hawk by French trappers. I argue the name is Spanish. I have never been able to find the name in the French language. I believe the name is not French but Spanish. Spelled "Antoñgua." Translation of this name is not available, but it does exist in the Spanish language. How Black Hawk got this name is not known, however my theory is since the Timpanogos had considerable contact trading with the Mexicans, and they also occupied Utah territory the name was given to him by Mexican trappers and not French.
The exact date of birth of Antoñgua is not known, the best estimation is circa 1838.
AUKEWAKETS - Taken prisoner at Manti and Brother VanBruen cut his throat, and held him to the ground until he died .
AUG-A-VOR-UN - Sub Chief of Black Hawk
BATTEST - Was shot point-blank through the head in his teepee at Cedar Valley.
BLUE SHIRT - Murdered at Battle Creek
*BOQUOBITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*CARBOORITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*Gunnison Massacre - Deseret News Article Vol. 4 March 30, 1854
*Several articles appeared in the Deseret News regarding the murder of the Gunnison party presenting strong evidence that Indians were not involved but were blamed for the event.
"Our present object is to call public attention to certain facts connected with the murder of Captain Gunnison and his party, which indicate that it was not the work of the Indians, as we were at first led to believe. We have conversed upon the subject with several old mountaineers, men who have spent a large portion of their lives in the Rocky Mountains, and who are familiar with the Indians of that region; and they have informed us that the facts and circumstances, as stated in the published accounts of the affair, indicate most strongly that it was not the work of the Indians. In the first place, the murder could not have been committed by the Pauvants, the tribe inhabiting the region of country in which it occurred, because Kern, and others of the party, were killed with firearms; and those Indians have no guns, and do not understand their use. The Utahs live remote from the spot where the tragedy was performed, and, besides, they are at peace with all white men, except the Mormons. Beale and Heap passed through the country of the Utahs without molestation of any kind. On the contrary, they were kindly received; game was killed for them; and the Indians informed them that they made war only upon the Mormons who had taken away their lands. Gunnison, also, had passed through the country of the Utahs, and they made no attack upon him. There are others, and still stronger circumstances, which, in the minds of those acquainted with Indian usage, are conclusive of the fact that the murder was not committed by them. Prominent among these, is the fact that the slain were not scalped. -- The scalp is the Indian's trophy. To the Indian warrior it is more valuable than booty. It is the proof of his valor, and confers upon him rank and distinction in his tribe. The accounts say that the bodies were mutilated; that both of Gunnison's arms were cut off; and one of Kern's. This proves that the authors of the deed were not so much hurried to have scalped their victims, if they had chosen to do so; for an arm is more difficult to remove than a scalp. Another circumstance is that notes, surveys, and other papers of the party were carried away. -- Papers are valueless to an Indian. He never takes them away, and usually scatters them upon the ground as useless.
"The Danites were a fraternal organization founded by Latter Day Saints in June of 1838, at Far West in Caldwell County, Missouri. During their brief period of formal organization in Missouri, the Danites operated as a vigilante group and took a central role in the events of the Mormon War. The exact nature and scope of the organization, and its connection to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a matter of some dispute among historians.
In June 1838, a group of zealous Mormons began meeting together in Far West under the leadership of Sampson Avard, Jared Carter, and George W. Robinson to discuss the problem of the dissenters. The group organized under the name "The Daughters of Zion," but they soon became known as the "Sons of Dan."
"I knew of many men being killed in Nauvoo by the Danites. It was then the rule that all the enemies of Joseph Smith should be killed, and I know of many a man who was quietly put out of the way by the orders of Joseph and his Apostles while the Church was there. It has always been a well understood doctrine of the church that it was right and praiseworthy to kill every person who spoke evil of the Prophet." - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DOCTOR BILL - Died of gun shot wound in self defense. Marysville, 1866.
GRASPERO AKA Grossapean, AKA Grousepete Brother to Wakara, Tabby, Arropean, Antero, Sanpitch, Sowette,
*HUNKOOTOOP- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*JIM - Brother of Mareer- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*JIMMY KNIGHTS - Shot Captain Gunnison during Gunnison massacre.- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
*KOONANTS - Son of Tom wants - Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
LITTLE CHIEF - Timpenogos Attacked Wanship's band in 1847. It is said he lead Militia to the family of Black Hawk who allegedly stole cattle, which is not true it was his son Little Wolf.
Black Hawk was only in his early teens at this time. It was Brigham
Young who sounded the alarm his horses had been stolen. He ordered Capt.
Scott to take 44 troops and deal with the thieves. Then when it was
discovered Young's horses were not stolen, Scott and his men ignored
Brigham's orders to return to Salt Lake and attacked and murdered Black
Hawk's family. It became known as the Battle Creek Massacre.
LITTLE WOLF- The son of Little Chief. Timpanogos, it is said he Led the Mormon Militia to the encampment of Kone and Blue shirt which commenced the Battle Creek Massacre.
The question remains weather he volunteered or was threatened to tell Capt. Scott where the encampment was.
MOAB- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
NUNKIBOOLITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
ANTERO - brothers Wakara, Tabby, Grospean, Sowette, Sanpitch, Arrropean
BATTISTE Old Elk's brother. Brother to Tintic. Died from gun shot to the head at point blank range by white man, in Tintic's tent, they were camped about a mile from Cedar Fort. 1856 (See: Fort Utah)
OLD BISHOP - Murdered by Richard A. Ivie, Y. Rufus Stoddard, and Gerome Zabrisky, he was then gutted and the cavity of his body filled with rocks and tossed in the Provo River. It was alleged he had stolen a shirt he was wearing. Historian Will Bagley states the cause was stolen cattle. His name was given him by whites. (See: Fort Utah)
OLD ELK aka (Pareyarts) aka (Big Elk) aka Para-yah, died from wounds at Fort Utah, after he had asked the Mormons for medicine as he was sick with measles, but was thrown out of the fort and refused help. (See: Fort Utah)
OLD MAREER - Took part in the Gunnison massacre 1853. Died from gun wound in skirmish at Meadow Creek. He had caused a slight wound on the chest of a white by jabbing him with an arrow because the white man was trying to take from Mareer his arrows during a peaceful exchange of gifts.
OLD PETNICH n/a
CHIEF BLACK HAWK Son of Sanpitch
CHIEF ANGIZEBL- Present during signing of treaty ending the Black Hawk War 1872
CHIEF ANTERO- Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.1872
CHIEF BEAR HUNTER - Murdered at Bear River Massacre1863
CHIEF KANOSH - Pahvant Chief-Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.1872... Born 1821, died 1884.
CHIEF KONE - Murdered at Battle Creek (blood relative to Black Hawk)
CHIEF LEMHI - Murdered at Bear River Massacre 1863
CHIEF MASHOQUOP Pahvant war Chief Father of Old Mareer Father killed by white men.
CHIEF MOUNTAIN - aka Kibets wounded at Diamond Fork Battle. 1866.
See also Black Hawk's Mission of Peace here.
CHIEF PETEETNEET - His son's held prisoner by Captain Hancock as ransom, was told he must sign a treaty before his sons would be released. He signed. Brigham Young then had a house built for him, a ploy to teach other Indians. Close friend of Tintic.
CHIEF ROMAN NOSE - (This was not his Timpanogos name, this is a name the whites called him) Sub Chief under Chief Kone killed in the Battle Creek Massacre. Five Natives killed, no whites, for stealing some cattle. Fought at
CHIEF SAGWITCH- Escaped murder at Bear River Massacre 1863
Old Uintah circa 1750
CHIEF SAN-PITCH- Father of Black Hawk and Kibets (Mountain) Murdered by George Tucker and Dolph Bennett at Birch Canyon between Fountain Green and Moroni. 1865. Brother of Wakara, Antero, Tabby, Grospean, Arropean, Wakara Sowiette
CHIEF SOWIETTE - Wanted peace with the whites. Brother of Wakara, Sanpitch, Arropean, Antero, Grospean, Tabby
CHIEF TABIONA (aka Tabby)- Present during signing of treaty of 1868. Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.
CHIEF WANSHIP Snake-Shoshone
CHIEF WHITE HARE- Present during signing of treaty ending the Black Hawk War 1872
CHIEF WHITE HORSE - Led attack at Rocky Ford (aka Gravely Ford) near Vermillion, Utah. Two whites killed, one wounded. 1868. Black Hawk was wounded while trying to rescue White Horse.
CHIEF YENEWOODS- (aka Arapeen) Well known by the whites. Refused to sign treaty at Manti 1865.
OPECARRY aka (Stick-In-The-Head) - Murdered at Battle Creek massacre. Timpanogos wanted peace with the whites. He got his name by whites, because he always wore a mahogany stick done up in his hair.
PANTS - Brother of Mashoquop - Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
PEANITCH- Indian guide
SAM aka Toady- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
SANTIK - Murdered at Louder's Spring. - Express rider for Black Hawk
SANPITCH- Principal Timpanogos leader during Black Hawk War, was murdered by Dolf Bennett Father of Black Hawk.
SHEGUMP - Murdered at Louder's Spring. Express rider for Black Hawk.
SHENANAGON - Sub Chief of Black Hawk killed Major Vance and Sergeant Houtz.
STICK IN THE HEAD - See Opecarry above.
SKIPOKE aka "Doctor Jacob"- Assailant at Gunnison Massacre
SQUASH HEAD - Killed himself rather than remain prisoner of Joseph Kelly and Bishop Don C. Johnson. He may have actually been murdered.
TABBY - son of Sanpitch. Brother of Walkara. Tabby was also uncle of Black Hawk.
TACKWITCH - Murdered by Dolph Bennett, he cut his throat with a hunting knife.
TINTIC- Sub Chief of the Timpanogos - Murdered by gun shot when attacked by John Clark and George in is camp. 1856
TOMWANTS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
WAHBITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre
WAKARA - His grandfather was Turunianchi, and six brothers were Sowiette, Arropean, Sanpitch, Ammon, Tobia (Tabby), and Grospeen. uncle of Black Hawk. Walkara was born about 1808, and so had been a boy of about seven when his grandfather Sanpete had been murdered by the Spaniards.
Wakara is a Shoshoni name means "hawk."
"WILD BILL" HICKMAN"... Hickman was baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1839 by John D. Lee. He later served as a personal bodyguard for Joseph Smith, Jr.. and Brigham Young. Hickman was a member of the Danites.
In 1854 Hickman was elected to the Utah Territorial Legislature. He was an important figure in the Utah War (The Black Hawk War used to be called). He torched Fort Bridger and numerous supply trains of the Federal Army. He was a serial killer. (Also see Fort Utah here)
Around Sept. 1871, while under arrest for the murder of Richard Yates years earlier, Hickman wrote an autobiography/confession in which he confessed to numerous murders." - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Timpanogos History: Dominguez and Escalante, they were welcomed in and fed, places prepared for them to stay while the runners were sent to bring our leader Turunianchi to meet with them. Turunianchi was at a camp north of us meeting with the other headman of the large Nation which is known today as the Shoshone. He came at the morning light to speak with the "big hats", they smoked, they talked, the "big hats" spoke of their god, and, when they left, as is our custom he sent them with a gift. A painted deer hide depicting the headmen of the Tribe, there were crosses painted on each to indicate we too believed in a higher power. We, as they, were people of prayer. It would be many years before we would once again be visited by a people wanting to share the concept of a higher power. We had met many people calling themselves trappers and traders, with them there would always barter, something our people knew as we had bartered and traded with each other as far back as can be spoken. These men came and went. Only a few choosing to stay and be part of the people. Our lives were untouched, the harmony and balance of being one with the earth remained intact. It was the summer of 1847 when our lives would be changed, a new people would come not like the "big hats" of old. These people would build fences, claim lands and disrupt our culture and way of life. Bringing confusion as they spoke God and peace while sharing sacks of flour laced with broken glass. Destroying us with what appeared to be acts of kindness. As our Timpanogos tribal leaders Kanosh, Tabby, Little Wolf, Wanship, Little Chief, Kone, Blue Shirt, Big Elk, Old Elk, Opecarry, Old Battestie, Tintic, Portservic, Sowiet, Angatewats, Petnick, Walkara, Graspero, Niequia, and Antero extend their welcome to Brigham Young and his followers, they were unaware of the bloodshed that would follow. (Source: Timpanogos)
In Remembrance of Timpanogos Leaders and Warriors
CHIEF BEAR HUNTER • CHIEF ANTOÑGA
(BLACK HAWK) • CHIEF KANOSH • CHIEF KONE • CHIEF LEHI • CHIEF PETEETNEET • CHIEF POCATELLO • CHIEF SAGWITCH • CHIEF SANPITCH • CHIEF TABBY • CHIEF TINTIC • CHIEF WAKARA
• CHIEF WANSHIP • CHIEF TABIONA • CHIEF YENE-WOODS (Jake Arapeen) • SOW-E-ETT (nearly starved) • KON-OSH (man of white hair) • TABBY (the sun) • TO-QUO-NE (black mountain lion) • SOW-OK-SOO-BET (arrow feather) • AN-KAR-TEW-ETS (red boy) • SAN-PITCH (bull rush) • KIBETS (mountain) • AM-OOSH AN-KAR-AW-KEG (red rifle) • NAUP-PEADES (foot mother) • PAN-SOOK (otter) • PEAN-UP (big foot) • EAH-LAND (shot to pieces) • NAR-I-ENT (powerful) • QUE-O-LAND (bear) • LITTLE CHIEF • LITTLE WOLF • LITTLE FEREMOTZ • OLD BATTISTE • OLD BILL • OLD DOCTOR BILL • OLD ELK • OLD MAREER • OLD PENNICH • OPECARRY (Stick In The Head) • PAH-VANTS • PANACARA • PANTS • SAM (Toady) • SANTICK • SHEGUMP • SKIPOKE • TOMWANTS • TACKWITCH • SEE-GO-ETT • TOW-ICH • NAR-A-COOTS • TO-A-BITCH • PE-DO • TO-NE-OO • OBER-ICH • SO-NEEP • WILLIAM • KID-IP • SAM • KUB-ER-UUP • CHARLEY • OLD JOHN •
KAR AN KEG • PEAN UP • EBAH SAND • BNARIENT • KAR TEW ITS • PAMSOOKQUOGAND
The above names I have collected from history records
as I came upon them. The spellings are as I found them. All are from the Timpanogos Nation. Names were spelled according to how they sound when spoken. For more
First People names click here.
"American Indian" battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans
* BATTLE OF ORISKANY (1777) * WYOMING VALLEY MASSACRE (1778) * CHERRY VALLEY MASSACRE (1778) * SULLIVAN EXPEDITION (1779) * BATTLE OF BLUE LICKS (1782) * NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR (1785–1795) * NICKAJACK EXPEDITION (1794) * SABINE EXPEDITION (1806) * WAR OF 1812 (WESTERN THEATRE), WHICH INCLUDED: * TECUMSEH'S WAR (1811-1813) * PEORIA WAR (1813) * CREEK WAR (1813–1814) * SEMINOLE WARS (1812, 1817–1818, 1835–1842, 1855–1858) * ARIKARA WAR (1823) * FEVER RIVER WAR (1827) * LE FÈVRE INDIAN WAR (1827) * BLACK HAWK WAR (1832) * PAWNEE INDIAN TERRITORY CAMPAIGN (1834) * CREEK WAR OF 1836, AKA SECOND CREEK WAR OR CREEK ALABAMA UPRISING (1835-1837) * MISSOURI-IOWA BORDER WAR (1836) * SOUTHWESTERN FRONTIER (SABINE) DISTURBANCES (NO FIGHTING) (1836–1837) * CHEROKEE UPRISING (1836-1838) * OSAGE INDIAN WAR (1837) * CAYUSE WAR (1848–1855) * NAVAJO WARS (1849–1861) O LONG WALK OF THE NAVAJO (1863–1868) * SOUTHWEST INDIAN WARS (1849-1863) * PITT RIVER EXPEDITION (1850) * MARIPOSA WAR (1850–1851) * YUMA EXPEDITION (1851–1852) * UTAH INDIAN WARS (1851-1853) * WALKER WAR (1853) * GRATTAN MASSACRE (1855) * YAKIMA WAR (1855) * SNAKE RIVER WAR (1855) * KLICKITAT WAR (1855) * PUGET SOUND WAR (1855–1856) * ROGUE RIVER WARS (1855–1856) * KLAMATH AND SALMON INDIAN WARS (1855) * TINTIC WAR (1856) * GILA EXPEDITION (1857) * MENDOCINO WAR (1858) * SPOKANE-COEUR D'ALENE-PALOOS WAR (1858) * PECOS EXPEDITION (1859) * ANTELOPE HILLS EXPEDITION (1859) * BEAR RIVER EXPEDITION (1859) * PAIUTE WAR (1860) * KIOWA-COMANCHE WAR (1860) * CHEYENNE CAMPAIGN (1861–1864) * DAKOTA WAR OF 1862 (1862) * BEAR RIVER MASSACRE (1863)* COLORADO WAR (1863–1865) *CIRCLEVILLE MASSACRE (1866) * KIDDER MASSACRE (1867) * SNAKE WAR (1864–1868) * UTAH'S BLACK HAWK WAR (1865–1872) * RED CLOUD'S WAR (1866–1868) * COMANCHE WARS (1867–1875) * BATTLE OF WASHITA RIVER (1868) * MARIAS MASSACRE (1870) * MODOC WAR (1872–1873) * RED RIVER WAR (1874) * APACHE WARS (1873, 1885–1886) * EASTERN NEVADA EXPEDITION (1875) * BLACK HILLS WAR (1876–1877) * NEZ PERCE WAR (1877) * BANNOCK WAR (1878) * CHEYENNE WAR (1878–1879) * SHEEPEATER INDIAN WAR (1879) * WHITE RIVER WAR (1879) * UTE WAR (1879-1880) * GHOST DANCE WAR (1890–1891) * WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE (1890) * BATTLE OF LEECH LAKE (1898) * NEW MEXICO NAVAJO WAR (1913) * COLORADO PAIUTE WAR (1915) * AIM TAKEOVERS (1969 - 75) * SENECA INDIAN NATION STANDOFF AND NEW YORK STATE THRUWAY BLOCKADE (1997)