Reporting on new discoveries regarding the Black Hawk War in Utah. since 1989 historian Phillip B Gottfredson has devoted his time and resources to nearly two decades of research. The inaccuracies in Utah's history, as they pertain to Utah's Native American inhabitants, reservations, treaties, tribal identity, and Native relations with early Mormon pioneers, must of neccesity be corrected now or never.

"The Truth must be told, regardless of what happened." ~ Loya Arrum



Previously on The Black Hawk War; Utah's Native American History we stated that Spanish explorers Dominguez and Escalante had named Utah valley, Provo River, Mount Timpanogos, and Utah Lake "Timpanogos" respectfully. According to the Dominguez Escalante Journal translated by Fray Angelico we made a mistake and have made the following correction:

The Timpanogos, or Timpangotzis, are the original inhabitants of Utah Territory who were first discovered by Spanish explorers Juan Revera in 1765, and later on by Dominguez and Escalante in 1776. They describe having come in contact with "the bearded ones" Eutahs, who spoke the language of the Snake-Shoshone and called themselves "Timpanogostzis," who lived by a lake the Timpanogostzis named Timpanogos. Dominguez and Escalante called the area El Valle de Nuestra SeƱora de la Merced de los Timpanogos (translation: The valley of our lady of mercy of the Timpanogos), a description fitting for the serene beauty of a lush green valley surrounded by majestic mountains, dominated by a twelve-thousand foot mountain in particular, named Mount Timpanogos dominating the landscape that Dominguez and Escalante called La Sierra Blanca de los Timpanois ( translation: The white mountain of the Timpanogos). The lake is known today as Utah Lake. Then, Utah and the Great Salt lakes were connected by a river. [The Lagunas, fish eaters, Yutah, Eutah, and the bearded ones; the Timpangotzis they are called by all these names.]

"Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitzapuninchi, Panchucunquibiran, and Picuchi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walkara), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, and Grospeen were known as the "Royal Bloodline." Six of the seven brothers were the uncles of Antonga (Black Hawk) who was the son of Sanpitch.

Dominguez and Escalante describe the Timpanogos as a loving, kind and hospitable people.

Today the Timpanogos Nation consists of about 1000 descendents of the 'Royal Bloodline' living on the Uintah Valley Reservation in Utah.

NOTE: It has always been our practice to make corrections and updates as we make new discoveries in our research. We make every effort to ensure our histories are accurate and up to date. Thank you very much for your patience!


Ute Chief ColorowColorow's photo here I have seen many times and in numerous articles mislabeled as Timpanogos Chief Walker or Walkara. This is an insult to both the Timpanogos Nation and to the Ute Nation. Historians also refer to Chief Colorow as Ute, when in fact he was Comanche. He was captured by the Mouche of the Southern Utes, and raised from childhood by the Mouche, Capote, and Tabaquache of the Colorado Ute peoples. Though he was born a Comanche, he lived his life as a Colorado Ute, and eventually became their leader. Colorow never came to Utah, and the Comanche is a branch of the Shoshone. So, Colorow was born a Shoshoni and raised as a Southern Ute. He was the Chief of the Ute Mountain Utes and is buried in Ignacio, Colorado. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Ouray who died Aug 24, 1880, Colorow died 1888, and Chief Ignacio died December 9, 1913. The Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and indigenous to Utah, but no relation to the Utes. Walkara was a leader of the Timpanogos who died in 1855 in Utah. Visit: Timpanogos Nation * Ute Tribe * Ute Mountain Utes *



Blessed To Meet Living Descendants Of Timpanogos Leaders

~Phillip B Gottfredson Black Hawk War Historian~

When I say to you, my dear friends, that I am blessed, it does not mean I am above or below anyone else. I am expressing how humble I feel that I would be given the opportunities to meet and learn from wonderful people as I walk through this life.

In the last two days, I was blessed to have sat with people who are the living descendants of celebrated leaders of the Timpanogs Nation, Chief Walkara, Chief Arappen, and Chief Tabby. Anyone who has read any of Utah's history about the Black Hawk War has read about these amazing leaders. And so it was I sat talking to the living descendants of these great leaders and couldn't help but feel blessed to have the honor to be here in this time and place.

It is one thing to read about people of the past, it's another when you meet their offspring and hear them talk about their ancestors. And when our conversation turned to matters of the heart, and tears roll down our cheeks because of the love of the Great Spirit that brought us together, you can't help but understand things on a different level, a spiritual level, and you realize more than ever what gets left out of history books. And how people have distorted things turning our hearts against one another in order to justify their own misdeeds and prejudices. And it is one thing to hear people talk of oneness, one heart, love, but it another when you experience it for real. From those people we, I, once hated. Hated because that's what I was taught in the church I went to, the schools I attended, and the community I grew up in, that's where I learned to hate.

On some level, because of the way I was taught, I felt I was not worthy, or didn't deserve to be talking to these people. Whom has such a great heritage. As we talked, laughed, and share our deepest thoughts, I realize these people are sharing with me their inherited traits from their ancestors. Is it then any wonder their ancestors were held in such high esteem? It's in their blood to be this way. This is who they were and still are. People of great character, people who have walked their talk since time immemorial, those who are the product of this land they call home.

I am blessed. I am also humbled to the depths of my soul to have been given this opportunity to learn from these people their stories, their sorrows of the past, their hope for the generations to come. For hope is one of the greatest gifts Creator gave us. Hope is the stuff that allows us to see and envision a better future for all our relations. When we have hope we can forgive past mistakes, and walk in the beauty of all that is good and meant to be.

I share these things with you because they are not mine to keep, but mine to share with others. It is my purpose to share with others these things that have been shown to me. To help build that bridge between our cultures in a good way. That is the path Creator has given me to walk. I used to think it was a curse to find myself with one foot in the white world, and another in the Native world. But it is a gift from Creator that I can walk between both worlds so I can help, as I say, build that bridge between us. With the hope that the day will come when we all can stand together as one before Creator without shame.


"Uintah Ouray Reservation" Nonexistent

How many times have you heard TV, Radio, Newspapers, and even court documents say or use the term "Uintah Ouray Reservation?" Well, did you know the fact is the Uintah Ouray Reservation is non exist ant.

"The Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is only a constitutional name NOT A RESERVATION and never was a reservation." Black Hawk Productions has recently added a new page to it's website titled "Utah's Timpanogos Are Snake-Shoshoni; No relation to Utes." And on this page Black Hawk War Historian Phillip B Gottfredson talks about the Uintah Ouray Reservation as never being ratified by Congress and therefore does not exist. The following is an excerpt from that page.

"The Northern Ute Tribe of Utah is a federally recognized Tribe. The "NORTHERN UTE TRIBE" wasn't created until 1937, under the constitutional name "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation". The "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is only a constitutional name NOT A RESERVATION and never was a reservation. Congress is the only one that can create a reservation, and there is no congressional act that created any reservation called the " Uintah & Ouray Reservation." The Northern Ute Tribe lives on the Uintah Valley Reservation as does the Timpanogos Tribe.

The Executive Order signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1861 that created the Uintah Valley Reservation does not make any mention of the "Uintah Ouray Reservation" and/or make any reference to the "Utes" or Ute Indians of Colorado or "Confederated Utes of Colorado" what-so-ever. What President Abe Lincoln said was "that the Uintah Valley, in the Territory of Utah, be set apart and reserved for the use and occupancy of Indian Tribes of Utah." Signed by The President Abraham Lincoln Executive Office Oct. 3, 1861, with the Presidents words "Let the reservation be established, as recommended by the Secretary of the Interior." It was then enacted into law on May 5, 1864, by Act of Congress.

In 1886 then-President Chester Arthur by Executive Mansion (same as Executive Order) designated a small strip of land on the Uintah Valley Reservation for the "temporary" use by the Colorado Utes at the Uintah and Ouray Agency to graze their cattle, which is today known as Ouray. President Arthur's Executive Mansion order did not abrogate or diminish the Uintah Valley Reservation. And in a recent 10th District Court ruling July 2017, the court said that the Uintah Valley reservation has never been abrogated or diminished and remains intact."

Why the Uintah Valley Reservation is being called the Uintah Ouray Reservation remains a mystery. Learn more at Utah's Timpanogos Are Snake-Shoshoni; No relation to Utes.


Timpanogos Tribe of Utah On The Internet

By Phillip B Gottfredson - 09/2018

Efforts to help correct Utah's inaccurate Native American history and bring attention to the Timpanogos Nation has begun to take hold on the internet.

Until four years ago, like most people I believed the Black Hawk War was between the Ute Nation and the Mormons. All the histories written said so. Why would we believe any different? That was until four years ago when I got a call from the Timpanogos Tribe's Chief Executive Mary Meyer. Mary respectfully informed me she was intrigued by my website and with all the research I have done. “I have been trying to get a hold of you..” she said, “to tell you that you have the wrong Tribe.”

Needless to say, I went into my defensive mode, after all I had invested more than a decade researching the Black Hawk War, “what do you mean I have the wrong Tribe” I responded. “Haven't you ever heard of the Timpanogos” Mary asked? Puzzled I said, “well... yes, maybe, aren't they Ute?” During that phone conversation Mary Meyer said enough to convince me it was probably a good idea I speak with her in person.

We met at a mutual friends home in Salt Lake, and what was supposed to be a hour meeting turned into four years and one of the greatest highlights in my life. As Mary has patiently educated me on a little known Tribe that history has marginalized. Or, to put it more succinctly, the Mormon church and it's historians have buried under a mountain of half-truths, ambiguities, platitudes, and omissions.

Upon getting acquainted with the Timpanogos peoples, the first thing I offered them was that I wanted to build them a website free of charge. It took a month to build it, and we launched in July of 2014. Since then we have watched it propagate the internet with surprising results. In 2014 a search for 'Timpanogos Indians' would result in hundreds of pages regarding Mount Timpanogos, and everything else associated with Mount Timpanogos, except the Tribe, from whom the mountain gets it's name. That has changed, and the Timpanogos Tribe of a thousand people, finally have a voice.

Of coarse I had to rewrite all 83 pages of my website replacing the word 'Ute' with Timpanogos. And now with two websites on the internet about the Timpanogos, we are seeing the name 'Timpanogos' everywhere. Not only that, many other sites we see are correcting their stories about the Black Hawk War and also replacing 'Ute' with... you guessed it, the Timpanogos Tribe!

Just a few days ago the Tribe updated their news page, and you should take a look at . And while you're there take a look around at their history etc., if you haven't already.

In closing I just want to say, for the past four years I have been spending all my summers with Mary and her people here on the Uinta Valley Reservation. Same as my great-grandfather did. He spent much of his time living with the Timpanogos and during the Black Hawk War. And now I understand why he too loved being with them.




Dedication of the Circleville Massacre Memorial

Circleville Memorial

Dedication of the Circleville Massacre Memorial I would describe as being a fair and accurate depiction of the tragic event of 1866 when 27 Paiute Koosharem men women and children were brutally murdered. Approximately 25 members of the Paiute tribe were present at the dedication along with some 40 or so people comprised of historians from the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, along with towns folk and the press. I was there along with Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, and a direct descendents of Chiefs Arapeen, Walkara, and Tabby. The ceremony lasted about an hour. And following the ceremony there was talk among the Paiute and historians of locating the burial place of the Massacre victims and a possible repatriation of their remains to bring closure to those whose ancestors were involved in the atrocity. (See: Circleville Massacre)


Phillip B Gottfredson Honored by The Timpanogos Nation


Following a Sunrise ceremony with the Timpanogos Nation of Utah, Phillip B Gottfredson was honored by the Timpanogos and presented with a Pendleton Blanket and many gifts for his helping Phillip B Gottfredson with Elder of the Timpanogos Tribethem with their history and creating a website for the Tribe. " I have never met a more kind people, their generosity and kindness I will never forget. I am truly grateful to Chief Executive Mary Meyers for helping me understand the history of the Timpanogos, and all those Tribal members for sharing with me their personal stories. I am proud to call the Timpanogos my friends," said a humble Gottfredson.

The celebration continued throughout the day with a delicious bar-b-q and socializing.

"These are a Native peoples of Utah who have suffered the most because of the Black Hawk War in Utah during the 1800's, and sadly they are made to continue to struggle for a decent life, and recognition from the Federal Government. These are the descendents of legendary leaders such as Black Hawk, Sanpitch, Tabby, Arapeen and many more. A people who were forced to give up so much because of early settlers greed for land and riches. But they are still here, and here they will remain determined in their fight for equality and justice" said Mr. Gottfredson. (See: Timpanogos Nation Website)