Timeline of the Black Hawk War in Utah

Here you can navigate the entire website. All of the events of the Black Hawk War are in chronological order according to date year, month and day followed by the number of deaths in the event. Click on highlighted links to read full story of the event. Use search tool above to search entire site.

        Utah's Timpanogos and Ute Tribe Origins Tribal identity is absolutely crucial in our understanding of the Black Hawk War in Utah, yet it remains the least understood topic causing inaccuracies in our histories leading to baseless conclusions and false assumptions. Historians mistakenly identify the Snake-Shoshone Timpanogos Nation as being Ute.
Year Month Indian Deaths White Deaths
Battles and Events
Person(s) Involved
1847 July 24     Mormons enter Salt Lake Valley  

Timpanogos camped at Hot Springs (north of Salt Lake)

(Visit Timpanogos Nation Website)

Kanosh, Tabby, Washakie, Little Wolf, Wanship, Little Chief, Kone, Blue Shirt, Big Elk, Old Elk, Opecarry, Old Battestie, Tintic, Portservic, Sowiet, Angatewats, Petnick, Walkara, Graspero, Niequia, Antero,

1848       Little Wolf in battle with Wanship  
1849 Jan 18th     George Albert Smith orders removal of Indians  
1849 Feb. 29 9   Battle Creek first massacre of Timpanogos by Mormons Young Black Hawk taken prisoner, family murdered.
  March 10     Provo settlement commenced  
        An-kar-tewets confrontation  
  12th     Fort Utah Built  
  August 1st 1   Old Bishop murdered near fort  
  Feb. 5th     Old Elk thrown out of fort sick with measles  
  7th     Col. Grant and troops sent to Fort Utah

Timpanogos Old Elk, Walkara , Kone, Black Hawk, Kanosh, Battiest, Tintic, Portsovic, Angatewats, Old Sowiet, Old Petnich, Tabby, Old Uinta, Niquia, Antero, Kanosh, Opecarry,

Troops: Grant, Huntington, Cap. Conover, William H. Kimball, Robert Burton, Lot Smith, James Ferguson, John R. Murdock, Ephraim Hanks, A. J. Pendelton, Orsen K. Whitney, Johnson, and Isham Flynn

  7th     Black Hawk shows up at Fort Utah as prisoner of Col. Grant Brigham Young refers to Antoga as "Black Hawk"
  9th 70   Battle at Fort Utah  
        Two Timpanogos survivors Pernetta and Pick Bishop Joseph Stacey Murdock takes Timpanogos children.
        Dr. Blake ordered troops Abner Blackburn and James Or to go out and behead each of the frozen corpses lying about in the snow.  
  April     Fort Utah dismantled and moved east into Provo  
  May     Cattle and horses raided at Fort Utah  
  June     Chief Walker vows revenge  
        Cattle and horses Raided Richville  
1851 March 5   Porter Rockwell murders 5 Indian prisoners  
    9   Captain Wm. McBride kills 9 Indians Skull Valley  
  May 1   Death of Squash Head at Springville  
      1 Indian raid on mill Richville Custer killed.  
    9   Goshen Valley Battle  
    15 est   Mormon Militia raids Indians at Black Rock  
1853   20   Cattle Raid Payson  
  July 6     Walker Statement: At the request of Maj. [Jacob] Holeman Ind. Agent for UT. Ter. I (M.S. Martenas) held a conversation with Indian Chief Walker respecting his feelings and wishes relative to the whites settling [sic] on this lands, and on the lands of the Indians generally.
  July 17     Ivie kills Indians begins Walker War James Ivie
  July 19   1 Indians kill Alexander Keele at Payson  
  July 23 7   Provo seven Indians killed  
        Allreds settle Spring City  
  Aug. 10 1   Attack on Willow Creek (Mona) Isaac Duffin
      2 Parley's Park John Dixon, John Quayle, John Hoagland John Knight
      1 Fillmore William Hatton
  Sept. 29 20   Salt Creek Canyon 20 Indians killed  
    6 1 Goshen Battle C. B. Hancock wounded  
  Sept. 30 8 4 Uintah Springs 8 Indians and 4 Mormons killed  
  Oct. 2 8   Nephi 8 Indians killed  
    2   Moshoquop and son killed  
  Oct. 4   2 William Mills and John Warner killed Manti  
  Oct. 14   1 Fernee Tindrell killed at Santiquin  
  Oct. 25   12 Gunnison Massacre

Pants, Mareer, Jim, Carboorits, Nunkiboolits, Tomwants, Koonants, Skipoke, Doctor Jacob, Wahbits, and Jimmy Knights.

Whites: Captain Gunnison, R. A. Kern, F. Creutzfeldts, Wm. Potter, and seven men.

      4 Uintah Springs near Moroni  
  Nov. 6     Sanpete County Chases Sawmill burned  
1854 Jan 6     Spring City Allred settlement burned  
  May     Treaty with Walker and Kanosh  
  Aug. 8   2 William and Warren Weeks killed  
1855 Jan 29 1   Walkara died poisoned by Mormons Buried in hills above Meadow
        Arropeen becomes Chief  
  July 19     Salmon River Mission  
        Salmon River Mission abandoned  
1856 Feb. 21 5   Tintic War 1856 In the year 1856, the Indians, a part of the Timpanogos, again became hostile, and a sufficient number of them went on the war path to make it expensive and annoying to the settlers.
  June 4   4 Salt Creek Canyon  
1857 Sept - 11   125 Mountain Meadows Massacre Paiute wrongly blamed for 125 whites murdered by members of LDS Church.
  Sept 20     Peter Gottfredson arrives from Denmark Peter Gottfredson Autobiography
1858     2 Chicken Creek On October 15th, 1858,--The remains of and Samual Brown, of Fillmore, Millard County, were found is a state of decomposition near Chicken Creek bridge, Juab County. They had been murdered by Indians on October 7th.
        Johstons Army Arrives Brigham Young orders Lot Smith to burn armies wagons.

 A faithful follower by the name of Lot Smith carried out the order, causing 2500 men to suffer extreme hardship during the bitter cold of winter.

        Disease is spreading rampant among Indian population  
1860   1   Camp Floyd Peaceable Indian murdered  
      1 Deep Creek Tooele Mail Station attendant killed, horse stolen  
1861       Lincoln set aside land for the Uinta Valley Reservation for the Timpanogos (Contigious Mountain peaks)  
1863 Jan 29 593  

Bear River Massacre of Snake-Shoshone

Also See video

In 1863, 593 Shoshone men women and children were brutally massacred at Bear River.
        Peter Gottfredson living in Sanpete and Severe Valley in Indian camps  
  April 12 4   Pleasant Grove Little Soldier killed by Porter Rockwell April 12th. William H. Seegmiller of Rich- field, Sevier County, Utah, gives the following ac- count of a fight between a small party of soldiers from Camp Douglas and a band of Indians under chief Little Soldier at Pleasant Grove, Utah County.
  May 5   1 Boxelder Sagawitch Band  
  June 10   2 Cedar Valley Stage attacked  
  July 30 12   Shell Creek Station  
        Peter Gottfredson in Thistle Valley  
1864       Timpanogos being forced on reservation  
1865 April 9     Manti John Lowry triggers Black Hawk War "It was a matter of supremacy between the whiteman and the Indian."
  April 10   2 Barney Ward and Peter Ludvigson killed  
        Mormon Population about 50,000  
        Tabby becomes leader of the Timpanogos Nation and Black Hawk becomes War Chief  
      2 Twelve Mile Creek  
  April 12   2 Salina Canyon  
  June 8     The Spanish Fork Treaty was negotiated with the Timpanogos Nation. However, the treaty would fail ratification as it bore the signature of Brigham Young, thus leaving intact the Uinta Valley Reservation, land belonging to the Timpanogos.  
  July 18     Grass Valley Massacre The soldiers then surrounded the camp and opened fire on them killing women, men, and children. Two managed to escape, and one little boy was found laying next to his dead mother was taken custody.
  July 26 2   Attack at Glenwood  
  Oct. 17   7 Ephraim seven settlers killed  
  Nov. 25   4 Raid on Circleville (see Circleville Massacre)  
1866 Jan 20 7 2 Pipe Springs  
  March 12 1   Nephi Sanpitch taken captive Sanpitch, father of Black Hawk, Murdered.
  April 2 1 3 Short Creek  
  April 13 7 1 Salina Canyon seven Timpanogos killed  
  April 14 3   Indians break jail in Manti three are killed  
  April 16     Kimball's & Conover's in Manti  
      1 Christian Larsen Killed Spanish Fork  
    3   Salina vacated 3 Timpanogos killed  
    2   Fort Sanford Santick and Shegump killed  
    2 2 Marysvale  
    1   Marysvale Little Indian girl murdered  
      1 Spanish Fork  
    1   Springville  
  APRIL 19 1   Sanpitch Murdered (Black Hawk's Father)  
  April 21 26   Circleville Massacre And so it was that one by one they were led out of the cellar, 24 in all. There were women, men, and children, and they were first struck from behind on the head to stun them, then their throats were cut.
  April 22 2   Salina Vacated  
    2   Fort Sanford Seagump and one other killed  
  April 26 4 2 Little Diamond Battle Chief Mountain wounded.
  April 28     Circleville abandoned  
  May 26     First Indian Raid on cattle Heber  
  June 10     Scipio Black Hawk takes 350 head of cattle  
        Battle at Gravely Ford Black Hawk & White Horse Wounded  
  June 24   1 Thistle Valley  
  June 26   2 General Erastus Snow sends 60 men to Gunnison Captain Andrus killed  
  July 16 2   Second Raid on cattle Heber  
  Aug.     Third raid on cattle Heber  
  Aug. 20     Fourth raid on cattle Heber  
  Oct. 8     Fifth raid on cattle Heber  
  Sept. 18 6   Red Lake battle 6 Timpanogos killed General Snow wounded  
  Oct. 27 3   Attack on Lee's Ranch  
        Nearly 70 Mormon villages evacuated  
1867 Jan 14     Black Hawk meets with Tabby  
  Jan 18 11   St. George Col. Pierce and Andrews  
  Mar 21   4 Glenwood-Black Ridge  
  April 15     Gen. R.T. Burton ordered to Sanpete  
  April 20     Glenwood, Richfield & Monroe vacated  
  April 22     Binder's infantry leaves SLC for Sanpete  
  June 1   1 Fountain Green Louis Lund killed  
  June 2   2 Twelve Mile Canyon Major Vance & Sgt. Holtz Killed   
  Aug. 10     Black Hawk sends word to Franklin He wants peace  
  Aug. 12     *Black Hawk tells Head stop fighting  
  Aug. 20     Heber Treaty Tabby and Joseph Murdock meet  
        Black Hawk begins his Mission of Peace begins  
      1 Sanpete Capt. Wm. Binder's Cavalry Adam Paul wounded
      2 Spring City J. Meeks and A. Johnson killed
        Spring City Raid  
    12   Pine Valley Eleven Indians Killed  
  Sept. 5   1 Warm Creek John Hay Killed
1868 Mar 21   1 Fort Mohave Edwin Wooley killed
  April 1 3   Raid on Kane County  
  April 1 2 Battle at Rocky Ford Justusen and Wilson killed, White Horse killed, the one Black Hawk had rescued at Gravely Ford
    2 1 Buckhorn Springs near Beaver Wm. James Allred
        Salt Creek Canyon Tabiona, James Ivie,
  July 11 4   Battle at Rock Lake  
  Aug. 19     Strawberry Treaty August 19th Black Hawk credited for it's success and Head 
  Nov. 10 2   Wm. Allred Kills Two Indians murders 2 Indians
        Indian Gratitude  
1869 May 10     Transcontinental Railroad completed  
    1   Arropeen murdered Circa 1869 Exact date not known, covered up.
1870       Black Hawk's Mission of Peace Travels 200 miles horseback from Cedar City to Springville
  Sept. 26     Black Hawk dies at Spring Lake  
1872     3 Glenwood "the white horse chief" Shena- Vegan. Present were Hans Gottfredson, Peter Oldroyd, Archibald Oldroyd,
  June 6   1 Twelve Mile Creek Niels Heizelt killed
  Aug. 12   1 Tabby can't control his warriors boy Stewart killed Spanish Fork
  Aug. 13   1 Fairview Nathan Stewart killed
  Aug. 17   1 Mt. Pleasant telegraph office Jeremiah Page killed by Richard Smith dressed as an Indian
  Sept. 17     Peace agreement at Mt. Pleasant  
      1 Fairview Nathan Stewart Killed
        Treaty at Springville Tabby signed
  Sept. 26   1 Spring City Daniel Miller Killed Daniel Miller killed, Peter Gottfredson present
        Mormon population about 180,000  
Total   932 238 Timpanogos Population 2300  
1880       Colorado Utes killed an unprincipled Indian agent Nathan Meeker  
1881       Congress to impose upon the Ute Indian peoples the Relocation Act forcing Colorado Utes into cohabitation with the Timpanogos on Uintah Valley Reservation Meeker Massacre
1887       Dawes Allotment act Breaks up Indian reservations
1892       Chief Tabby Dies at Tabiona He is believed to have been 113 years of age
1898       Utah becomes state  
1909       Government Census Indian population 2300 Non-Indian pop 370,000 Utah
1934       Reorganization Act Pres. Roosevelt over turns Dawes Act being unconstitutional.
1937       The Ute Tribe was formed Adopts as it's contitutional name "The Ute Tribe of the Uintah Ouray Reservation" Note: There does not exist a reservation named the Uintah Ouray, the name is misleading.
1938       The "Ute Tribe Corporation" is formed  
1953       Ernest L. Wilkinson co-authors the Termination Act. The Termination Act proved very distructive to Tribe nation wide and was finally blocked by Presidents Kennedy, Nixon, and Johnson.
1975       Self Determination Act  

In this section: More Important events of the Black Hawk War

BLACK HAWK DIES LDS CHURCH LOOTS GRAVE 1919 Black Hawk's remains on public display on Temple Square Salt Lake City.

EXAMINATION OF BLACK HAWK'S REMAINS 1996 Published by permission from NAGPRA.

Topics section 2 of 3

In this section: History, Treaties, maps, lists of names, facts, Doctrine of Discovery, autobiographies, and other related insights:

THE STORY OF TIMPANOGOS LEADER BLACK HAWK - 1847 to 1870 Detailed history of Black Hawk and the Black Hawk War.

FACTS OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR Facts about the Black Hawk War.

THE DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY -Genocide Conceled as Education, European Expansion See also video: Christian Doctrine of Discovery: Steve Newcomb

TREATIES OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR There were no legal binding treaties made between Mormon settlers and the First People...

BRIGHAM YOUNG ON HIS "PROPER WAY TO TREAT THE INDIANS " Treat them kindly, and treat them as Indians, and not...

TIMOTHY H. O'SULLIVAN'S MANIFEST DESTINY To establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the worship of the Most High -- the Sacred and the True.

MEMORIAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF UTAH Brigham Young paid his all-Mormon-militia one and a half million dollars to "get rid of the Indians"

THE EZRA BOOTH LETTERS It is well known that the ostensible design of the Mormonites...

Who was involved in the Black Hawk War  A list of some 640 names both Indian and non-Indian from the book Indian Depredations in Utah by Peter Gottfredson.

Topics section 3 of 3

In this section: Commentary, Articles about the legacy of the Black Hawk War, assimilation and termination, news articles, Learning Native Life Ways:

LEGACY OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR  The one question these accounts do not answer, what is the Indians version?

Learning Native Ways

TRUTH IN EDUCATION FOR ALL Utah American Indian/Alaska Native Education State Plan Advisory Committee.

*NATIVE AMERICAN POEMS AND PRAYERS Special Collection of American Indian poems and prayers.

PROTOCOLS AND ETHICS of the America n Indian Peoples

RUSSELL MEANS A controversial patriot of the Lakota Nation.

THE LAND OF THE LAMANITES That the Lamanites (American Indians) a "white and delightsome people." Can you say Vitiligo?

LIFE AMONG THE TIMPANOGOS 1872 by Peter and Hans Gottfredson - The humor, generosity, character and superstitions of the Native

Peter Gottfredson:

EXCERPTS From Indian Depredations in Utah 1865-1873 First hand accounts of the battles they fought.

PETER GOTTFREDSON IN THE INDIAN CAMPS He spent most of time in the Indian camps during the war.  

PETER GOTTFREDSON'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY 1857-1874 by Peter Gottfredson

EULOGY to Peter Gottfredson 1938



COMMENTARY by Phillip Gottfredson  A collection of commentary on various subjects.




1866 Map of the Black Hawk War See where the battles took place during the war! 

The following maps will display regardless of screen settings, but may be slow loading.  

1. Tribes of The American Indian Nation map.  

 2. Tribal Locations in America Past and Present Map

Source Material for the Utah Black Hawk War Documentary Film Project


P. GREEN AT THE CIRCUS Just for laughs: "The man who takes the tickets at the circus eyed me...