News & Updates Archive's Research News & Updates Archive is past articles going back to the year 2018. The material on this page regarding the Utah Black Hawk War has been arranged by the posting date. We recommend using your browser's 'search this page' feature to find articles by date or subject.

For the most current news and updates please click HERE.



Phillip B Gottfredson with Gary Lee PricePhillip B. Gottfredson, author of "My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace", endorses Gary Lee Price's latest sculpture of Timpanogos Chief Wakara Monument, and Gary reciprocates by endorsing Gottfredson's book! "Gary is a damn good friend, and I believe friendships are forever," said Phillip.



Phillip B Gottfredson on the steps of the Utah State Capitol pointing at Gary Lee Prices Statue of ResponsibilityToday will go down in history as the legeslature of the state of Utah unaminously voted to install Sculptor Gary Lee Price's 305 foot Statue of Responsibility on the site of the old state prison at the point of the mountain in Utah.

We used to be a nation of builders and architects, and now we’re a nation of arsonists. We tear apart, we destroy, we tear down, and there’s so little left to inspire us,” said Cox. “I believe Utah is still a state of architects, a state of builders. I still believe that we believe in big things – things that outlive us, things that are bigger than us, things that matter more than just the moment – and I wanted something that would represent that, and this is that!Utah Governor Spencer Cox (An exerpt from the Governor’s address yesterday at our SoR presentation at the State Capitol.) Nov. 21, 2023



Author Phillip B Gottfredson

Fireside Chat With Phillip B Gottfredson

The public is invited to a fireside chat with Phillip B Gottfredson, Author of My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. The event will be on November 5th, at 7:pm at the home of Holly Anderson Robbins at 1235 North 250 East Orem, Utah. Phillip will discuss the Black Hawk War in Utah and the sacred lifeways of the Indigenous peoples of Utah. Phillip will also do a book signing. For more information please contact Holly at 801-885-0703. R.S.V.P




It's been a fantastic year, moving from Arizona to Utah, getting kicked out of a motel for smoking in the bathroom, meeting new and awesome friends, book signings at two festivals, and all the support for the Black Hawk War Project. Most important is all the public recognition the Timpanogos Nation is getting now; to see the smiles on their faces and the hope in their eyes goes beyond words to describe. And it's just the beginning!

Renowned sculptor Gary Lee Price is about to make the first bronze casting of Timpanogos Chief Wakara in his Springville foundry. This, my friends, is a historic moment in the lives of the Timpanogos. Since the Timpanogos were forced to leave their home in 1878, they were finally given the recognition they deserved. And this, too, is just the beginning.

As grateful as we all are, much work still needs to be done. And to be perfectly honest, we stand on the shoulders of many people who helped us along the way. Donations support a lot. Thank you very much for that!! And our book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is selling very well now, still 5 star reviews three years in the running! WOW!! Grateful for that as we continue to get the story out to the public. Thank you!!


Phillip B Gottfredson



Meeting Sculptor Gary Lee Price

Scultor Gary Lee Price with Phillip B Gottfredson Author and sculpture of Timpanogos Chief Wakara in background.

I spent a delightful afternoon with my old friend Gary Lee Price at his studio/foundry in Springville, Utah. Not only is Gary a master sculptor but he is the author of Devine Turbulence #1 International Best Seller. Gary has bought eleven copies of my book My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace as gifts to his many friends. I am truly grateful and honored to know Gary.

In the above photo is a seven foot statue of Timpanogos Chief Wakara, better known as Chief Walker. More information on that project when the time is right.

Thank you Gary Price and all the best!!



Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival

Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival at University Mall The Orchard in Orem, Utah

It was exciting to see and meet many members of the Timpanogos Nation at the second annual Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival at The Orchard University Mall in Orem, Utah. There were hoop dancers, Tribal speakers, and drummers. Chief of Staff for Utah's Attorney General RIC CANTRELL is seen in the above photo speaking with the author of My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, Phillip B Gottfredson, at the Timpanogos Tribes booth. "The time is long overdue to recognise the Timpanogos Nation as the original inhabitants of Utah," said Phillip.

Tribal Council member Perry Murdock and Julian Reed Tribal members gave powerful speeches and sang sacred prayer songs. James Flaming Eagle Mooney, gave the opening and closing prayers honoring Mary Murdock Meyer, Executive Chief of the Timpanogos Nation.

"A heartfelt thanks to Ed Conder, Gary Lee Price, and Leesa Price for their support and helping us. THANK YOU!!" - Phillip Gottfredson



Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival

September 16, 2023 | 3:00-6:00 PM

Come to the 2nd annual Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival in The Orchard at University Place.

Immerse yourself in captivating performances (schedule coming soon), authentic artistry and yummy Frybread.

There will also be yard games and a FREE dreamcatcher craft for kids (while supplies last).

Stop by the Timpanogos Nation and the Runa Arts booths for authentic Native American items for sale.

Runa Arts is also located inside the shopping center by Dillard’s.

Meet Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe, and Author Phillip B Gottfredson in person. Mary & Phillip will be signing the book My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, which will be available for purchase. Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is a history of the Tribe, Pleasant Grove, and the Black Hawk War of Utah and was written in collaboration with the Timpanogos Tribe.


9/01/2023 UPDATE!


Timpanogos Tribe Culture Display

Park in Pleasant Grove, Utah, on Monday, September 11, 2023 ~ 5pm until dark TODAY!!

"A new feature of Heritage Festival in 2023 is a cultural display by the Timpanogos Tribe. Heritage ParkPleasant Grove, UtahHonoring the original inhabitants of the ground now occupied by Pleasant Grove."

Meet Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe, and Author Phillip B Gottfredson in person. Mary & Phillip will be signing the book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, which will be available for purchase. Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is a history of the Tribe, Pleasant Grove, and the Black Hawk War of Utah and was written in collaboration with the Timpanogos Tribe.

Renowned sculptor Gary Lee Price's clay sculpture of Timpanogos Chief Wakara, better known as Chief Walker, will be on display for the first time. Sometime soon, Gary will cast in bronze a 30-foot version of Wakara. The exact location for the final version is still being decided, but it will be somewhere in Utah County.

Be there, or be square :-)



Congressional Acts Governing First Nations There was a series of congressional acts designed to diminish tribal lands, or reservations, the Dawes Allotment Act 1887, the Reorganization Act 1934, the Termination Act 1953, Then came the boarding schools and the LDS Church Indian placement program 1954. The Self Determination Act 1970, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1978.



Utah Chief Antonga Black Hawk (1837-1870)

NOTE: For clarification, the were three or more "Black Hawk's" in Utah history. When referring to the Timpanogos Chief I use the name "Antonga Black Hawk."

Today the Ute Tribe claims that Antonga Black Hawk is their ancestor and that he was not Timpanogos but Ute. According to the 1885 Indian Census Roll of the Uintah Ute of the Uintah Valley Reservation, the only Black Hawk born into the Mountain family was in 1851. And it shall also be noted that the repatriation documents clearly state that Antonga Black Hawk was a Timpanogos Indian.

The Utes Black Hawk couldn't have been at Battle Creek Canyon in 1848 and the Fort Utah massacre in 1850. He could not have led Utes into battle in the Black Hawk War between 1865-1870. The Utes were brought to Utah under the Congressional Act of 1880, following the death of their agent Nathan Meeker at the Whiteriver Agency in Colorado. See Utah Black Hawk War; Timpanogos Biography

Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was born in 1837 and was the son of Sanpitch, who was the brother of Timpanogos leaders Wakara, Arapean, Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Kanosh, and Grospeen, who was known as the "Royal Bloodline." For more information, visit the Timpanogos Nations' official website: Timpanogos Nations's official website.

May I also add, when I was closely working with the Utes in 2005 to 2009, I would ask them who Chief Wakara was. And Chiefs Tabby, Arapean, Sanpitch and others. They would tell me "they were renegade Indians, not our people." But today they are now claiming them as their chiefs. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Ouray, who died August 24, 1880, Colorow died 1888, and Ignacio died December 9, 1913. There is no record of these Chiefs being in Utah or taking part in the Black Hawk War.



An Open Appology

During my routine review of the content on our website, I came across the following paragraph I wrote back in 2017:

The Fremont Indians; Fact or Fiction? It is not uncommon for the 'scholars' of Utah to create fallacious names for Indian Bands and Tribes or confuse one for the other. Here is an excellent example of confusion. Utah has a long record of inaccurate and fabricated Native American history. For example, let us take the Fremont Indians. There never was any tribe called the Fremont, a name derived from an early explorer named John Fremont who in 1843 tripped over some Indian artifact that no archeologist could attribute to any particular Tribe. So in their typical disrespectful 'devil-may-care' fashion toward indigenous peoples, they fabricate one calling it the "Fremont Indians." We can only imagine the confusion this will cause later on down the road for researchers, readers, and historians alike.

I have rewritten this paragraph to read:

The Fremont Indians; Fact or Fiction? Well, yes, and no. The so-called "Fremont Indians" refers to a Native American culture that existed in what is now the western United States, primarily in present-day Utah and surrounding areas. "Fremont" comes from the Fremont River, named after John Charles Fremont, an explorer who surveyed the region in the 1840s. John C. Frémont, also known as "The Pathfinder," was an actual historical figure and an explorer of the American West in the 19th century. He was born on January 21, 1813, in Savannah, Georgia, and died in New York City on July 13, 1890.

The Fremont River originates in the Fish Lake Plateau. It flows southeastward through the Capitol Reef National Park before eventually joining the Muddy River. The so-called Fremont lived in the region from approximately 400 to 1300 CE.

Beginning in the 1920s, archaeologists started the study of artifacts found along the Fremont River that they couldn't attribute to any known Tribe then, so they named them "Fremont." They are a Tribe indigenous to Utah, so they're given a French name by non-Native people? This a classic example of how disinformation over time becomes fact. We can only imagine the confusion this fictitious name will cause later on down the road for researchers, readers, and historians alike.



The Power of Intention

writer Phillip B Gottfredson author Black Hawk's Mission of Peace

Dear Supporters,

It is with great passion and an unwavering dedication to the truth that I address you today. Over thirty years ago, my journey into the depths of the Black Hawk War in Utah began, ignited by the powerful words of my great-grandfather's book, "Indian Depredations in Utah," published in 1919. Little did I know that this path would lead me to a profound connection with the Timpanogos Tribe.

During the years of my research, I uncovered a hidden tale that has been shrouded in silence for far too long. The Timpanogos Tribe, brave and resilient, has carried the weight of their untold story for 160 years. While the pages of history were being rewritten by those who sought to romanticize the Mormon colonization of the Great Basin, the Timpanogos were unjustly erased, their rightful place stolen from them.

But now, the winds of change are blowing. A spark was ignited by releasing "My Journey To Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" in 2019. Last summer, the Timpanogos began to rise, capturing the attention of historians, state legislators, anthropologists, and the general public's hearts. Their story, once silenced, now echoes far and wide.

To you, our steadfast followers, I extend my deepest gratitude. Your unwavering support has fortified our resolve in this noble pursuit. We have fought tirelessly, pushing against the currents of indifference and erasure. We have forged a path where none existed, shedding light on the dark corners of history.

Today, I stand in awe of the Timpanogos Tribe. Their courage, wisdom, and resilience have brought them to the forefront. Their long-suppressed voice has found resonance, and their platform grows stronger with each passing day.

There is still much ground to cover, much truth to unearth. But be assured we remain committed to our shared cause. We will continue to navigate this arduous journey, hand in hand with the Timpanogos, and we vow to keep you informed every step of the way.

Together, we have embarked on a mission that transcends the boundaries of time and injustice. We have the power to rewrite history, to give voice to the silenced, and to restore the stolen dignity of the Timpanogos Tribe. Let us seize this moment, for it is through unity and unwavering determination that we shall create a future where truth prevails.

With heartfelt gratitude and unyielding hope,

Phillip B Gottfredson



Open Letter From Phillip B Gottfredson

Hi everyone!

Let me update you on what's been happening since moving back to Utah after 25 years. It has really been a challenge in many ways. The population has grown tremendously here. Towns have become bustling cities. Prices have skyrocketed. All the once fertile and productive farmlands are paved with concrete and asphalt. New subdivisions are crammed with quickly built homes and apartment complexes that all look the same, only a few feet apart. Every major retail chain is here and repeated the same from city to city. Developers have a cookie-cutter mentality and no imagination whatsoever. It's monotonous and boring. Above it all is the majestic snow-capped Wasatch mountains, the only familiar remnants of what was once a paradise for Indigenous people who called it their home.

My house is on the foothills with a panoramic view of Utah Valley and Utah Lake. Deer pass through the neighborhood, often looking for food and shelter. No longer able to make their way to the nearby lake because of fenced properties and traffic-clogged roads and freeways, they look worn and weary from doging the dangers and noise of a ruthless sprawling city. Frightened by the very sight of a human being, they dive into small patches of untouched land for safety and sanctuary, where it's only a matter of time before that will disappear too.

For me, it's a bag of mixed emotions. And like the deer, I, too, struggle to find a safe haven in what was once my home.

I awakened at 7am for a doctor's appointment at 9:20am this morning. I had waited over a month to see him. I drove 30 miles to the doctor's office and through rush-hour traffic. I arrived 13 minutes late and was told I would have to reschedule my appointment for being late. I thought of all the times I had to wait in the doctor's office 20, 30, an hour past my appointed time. "No," I said, "forget it! I wont be back."



I first posted this article back in March 2019. It may seem insignificant to some people, but it is disrespectful to the living descendants of Timpanogos War Chief Black Hawk.

It's Time to Clean Up Utah's History

Kiowa Apache man called Black HawkFact: This is NOT Utah's Black Hawk! This portrait is an Albumen print taken in 1875 by William S. Soule, the post photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. The photo is of a Kiowa Apache man called Black Hawk. The Smithsonian Collection has provided it. 

This photo has been published online and in numerous books and publications as Utah's Black Hawk for decades. There are no known photos of Antonga Black Hawk. Utah's Black Hawk died in 1870.

Utah's Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was Timpanogos Snake Shoshoni, not Apache or Ute. He was buried at Spring Lake, Utah, in 1870, and he was not from Oklahoma! See Black Hawk's burial for more information.




The Vatican repudiates 'Doctrine of Discovery,' which was used to justify colonialism

Quoting from NPR news article 03/30/2023 by Bill Chapple

Nearly 500 years after papal decrees were used to rationalize Europe's colonial conquests, the Vatican repudiated those decrees on Thursday, saying the "Doctrine of Discovery" that was used to justify snuffing out Indigenous people's culture and livelihoods is not part of the Catholic faith.

The doctrine was invoked as a legal and religious standing by Europeans who "discovered" new lands and violently seized it from people who had been living there for generations. It has been cited in different arenas for centuries, including by the U.S. Supreme Court — as early as 1823 and as recently as 2005.

"It renounces the mindset of cultural or racial superiority which allowed for that objectification or subjection of people, and strongly condemns any attitudes or actions that threaten or damage the dignity of the human person." See NPR news article 03/30/2023 by Bill Chapple

For Decades First Nations have insisted the Catholic Church condemn the Doctrine of Discovery and admit to the destruction it brought to indigenous people worldwide. This historical moment is essential to reconciliation and justice for Native Nations.



Spirit of the East, Bring Us Our New Dawning

Transitioning from Arizona to Utah over the past seven months has been a worthwhile and sometimes tricky challenge. Over two decades ago, my brother and I left our home in Utah and moved to Oregon to live with a Shoshone family to begin our quest to learn First Nation peoples' history and sacred lifeways. We sold everything and left with a trailer of personal belongings, two dogs, two cars, and a few thousand dollars. More importantly, we promised each other that we would accept whomever and whatever stood before us without judgment or expectations. It was a leap of faith, believing it was something we had to do and for reasons that would become clear as years passed. My brother David crossed over into the spirit world in 2015. He told me to continue our work and said, "it's not about us, you and me, but all of us."

It is good to be back home again. I live in Pleasant Grove, Utah, only a short distance from Battle Creek Canyon, where the Black Hawk War began in 1849 between the Timpanogos Tribe and Mormon Militia which I see as serendipitous that I should find a place to call home here in Pleasant Grove I believe was meant to be, but unplanned. And I am grateful for my friends who have given me tremendous, often unexpected, and overwhelming generosity in the transition.

The Timpanogos Tribe collaborated with me in writing the book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, released in 2019 by Archway Publishing from Simon Schuster. Before this time, virtually no one knew anything about the Timpanogos in Utah. It has played an essential role in giving the Timpanogos a voice. Over the past year, the Tribe, notably Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos, has been very busy giving talks to groups and major organizations throughout Utah, bringing much-needed attention to the Tribe and its history. And that is why I moved back here to further assist the Tribe in any way they see fit to further educate the citizens of Utah about the Black Hawk War and the Timpanogos Nation.

But we can’t do all that needs to be done alone. We need your continued help as well. And the best way for our allies to help is to continue efforts to understand the devastating consequences that Settler Colonialism brought to the Timpanogos Nation. Knowledge is power, and the more knowledge you have the greater your influence in bringing much-needed healing to those who are suffering from generational trauma because of the atrocities of the Black Hawk War. Being well-informed when engaging in conversations and discussions about the Black Hawk War and the Timpanogos brings change.

Everything you need to stay informed is at your fingertips. Two informative websites,,, the book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, and direct access to Mary Meyer and the Timpanogos Tribe, and myself, Phillip B Gottfredson.

The following is our updated contact information:

Mary Meyer and the Timpanogos Nation


Mail: P.O. Box 327 Ft. Duchesne, Utah 84026

Phone: (435)725-0333


Phillip B Gottfredson Historian & Author:


Mail: Phillip B Gottfredson

336 East University PKWY #1127 Orem, Utah 84058


Thank you, everyone, for your continued interest and support. 


Phillip B Gottfredson



Open photo


Did You Know?

When the Civil War ended in 1865, attention turned toward western expansion and the U.S. military to Indian fighting. The United States government called for the extermination of tribes who resisted giving up their land. Highly publicized massacres of Indians brought the attention of philanthropic groups. American humanitarians proposed a new solution to the "Indian problem" by eliminating Indianness through acculturation. Christian reformers argued that if Indians were assimilated, the Indian problem would vanish. In the 1860s, the U.S. adopted a Peace Policy, gradually shifting toward a more peaceful approach, and genocide of Native Americans was officially discouraged. The Peace Policy meant forcing Native tribes to reservations and boarding house schools to assimilate them into white culture, thus eliminating Native peoples bloodlessly. The intended effect of the Peace Policy was to prevent the rampant slaughter of Native Americans.

Christianization, education, and cultural development became the means toBaptizing the Shivwit Indians assimilate tribal peoples so that they could be integrated and absorbed by mainstream society. Example, the LDS church converted many of Utah's Native Americans to Mormonism, according to church doctrine, and in so doing, the so-called "loathsome" Indians would become a "white and delightsome people." They would be forgiven of the sins of their forefathers. (Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 5:21-23) According to church doctrine, the nature of the dark skin was a curse, and the cause was the Lord; the reason that the Lamanites (Indians) "had hardened their hearts against him, (God)," and the punishment was to make them "loathsome" unto God's people who had white skins.


Gratitude from Phillip B Gottfredson

A few days ago, I received an e-mail from Marcus, a young man who explained he had just finished reading my book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. "It was life-changing," he wrote. He liked it so much that he went out and bought four more books to give his friends as Christmas gifts. If that weren't enough, he made a sizable donation to to thank us for all our hard work. 

I wanted to share this with all of our supporters because I appreciate people like Marcus for his thoughtfulness and incredible generosity. To all who have helped us through the years, a heartfelt THANK YOU to everyone. We love you! 



"Settler Colonialism" is a fairly new term we have recently added to the narrative of the Black Hawk War. What is the difference between Settler Colonialism and colonialism? The Oxford dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically."

Settler colonialism is more specific. "Settler colonialism is an ongoing system of power that perpetuates the genocide and repression of indigenous peoples and cultures." According to Global Social Theory, "Settler colonialism is a distinct type of colonialism that functions through the replacement of indigenous populations with an invasive settler society that, over time, develops a distinctive identity and sovereignty." It is the elimination of Native Americans, and the seizure of land and resources in perpetuity.

Over the past month, Phillip B Gottfredson has updated much of the website injecting the term Settler Colonialism to the narrative so people better understand that it is the primary cause of Utah's Black Hawk War. For example, in the opening paragraph of the website he wrote, "Settler colonialism is the primary cause of  Utah's Black Hawk War. The war spanned 24 years from when Mormons' arrived in the upper Great Basin in 1847 to the extermination and forced removal of the Timpanogos Nation of the Wasatch to the Uintah Valley Reservation in 1871."

Another example, "Religion had a significant role in the Black Hawk War in Utah, cultural conflict, political motivation, and legal justification for settler colonization of North America. "Papal authority is the basis for United States power over indigenous peoples," wrote Peter d'Errico, Legal Studies Department, University of Massachusetts/Amherst."



P B Gottfredson's BookStore is for historians, educators, students, researchers, and enthusiasts of the Utah Black Hawk War and Native American culture. That means YOU!

P. B Gottfredson's BookStore


10/29/2022 sees a remarkable increase in search engine ranking!

Over the past month, Phillip has been updating the home page. The purpose of the home pageold man at computer is to give our visitors a clear overview of our website. And not only for visitors but search engines such as Google, it is essential to get things right from a human perspective and technical requirements.

The good news is we are done, for now, and our website has the distinction of being listed at the top of Google's results page. Using the search term "Utah Black Hawk War," you see we are at the top position! Not too shabby for a 78-year-old and an old-school web designer! We apologize for any inconvenience we have caused during the process.




The Gunnison Massacre 1853

by Phillip B Gottfredson

On this date Qct. 25, 1853, the Gunnison Massacre occured. Peter Gottfredson, my great-grandfather, gives a detailed account of the massacre in his book Indian Depredations In Utah. It's also here on our website at EXCERPTS.html#Gunnison.

What is remarkable, the story begins describing the exact location of the massacre and an old post that marks the exact spot. While I was in Utah over the summer, I was told by a friend who went to the location out in the west desert that the post is still there after 169 years! That's amazing!!




Since 2002 Phillip B Gottfredson has been researching the Utah Black Hawk War while learning Native American history from First Nations people in North and South America. Phillip just returned from Utah, where he spent the summer with artist and long-time friend Carol Pettit Harding in Pleasant Grove. Carol designed the cover for Phillip's book My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. "I was born and raised in Springville, Utah," said Phillip, "and now it's time for me to return home again. I met so many new and wonderful friends up there on this trip. I spent two beautiful days at the home of Mark and Patti Eddington in Ivins, Utah. Mark Eddington, as many know, is a veteran journalist for the Salt Lake Tribune and former Lead Speech Writer at Utah Governor's Office. Patti is an artist, Founder, CEO, WebrandWest LLC, and a long-time friend. She introduced me to amazing people and showed me around Kayenta Center For The Arts.

"The book is doing well in Utah, and I believe my time could be better spent in Utah where I will continue my work."

The exact date Mr. Gottfredson will return home has not been set. Sometime in the early spring of 2023.



In remembrance of Chief Black Hawk

We remember September 26, 1870, War Chief Black Hawk was laid to rest at Spring Lake, Utah, the place of his birth. He had fought the good fight and passed out of this world in peace.



The Sanpete Messenger Heard Us! Chief Sanpitch is not Ute!

On July 9th we reported that a new monument was errected in honor of Chief Sanpitch saying he was Ute. Phillip B Gottfredson and Sarah Grahm fired off letters to the Sanpete Messager newspaper explaining that Chief Sanpitch was not Ute but Timpanogos. The newpaper responed by publishing our letter to the editor.

We are grateful to the Messenger for helping us correct a bit of Utah's History!



FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE :-) cites a large number of books on our website. For your convenience, we have linked those books to Amazon, where you can purchase them. We have changed our main menu at the top of each page. You can now choose SOURCES which takes you to our source material, and added LIBRARY, which takes you to all the books we cite as references that you can now purchase via our website. This added convenience makes our website an even more unique as a valuable online resource on the subject of Utah's Black Hawk War and Mormon colonization.


"It's Not About Me"

The article "It's Not About Me" has been updated. "Written in 2008, it was time for me to update it for clarity. The story was taken from my journal and had never been edited. During those times, I was still learning and trying to understand my responsibility as a fellow human being, not just a historian. My arrogance at the time was something I had to overcome before I could learn from Native Americans their history and lifeways. It was a hard lesson but necessary. I am forever grateful to the Native people for their patience and understanding and for not giving up on me. - Phillip B Gottfredson


"On Sept. 7, 1872, the final peace treaty of the Utah Black Hawk Indian War was signed at the home of Bishop Seeley by General Henry A. Morrow, Orson Hyde, Amasa Tucker, Fredrick Olson, Reddick Allred and William S. Seeley. Representing the Indians were sub-chiefs Tabiona, White Hare, Angitzebl and others who served under Chief Black Hawk. The war cost Utah $1,535,000.00, the lives of more than 75 whites and several times that many Indians."

The above is the inscription found on another Monument in Mount Pleasant, Utah. This is of coarse an old monument, the plaque itself going back some 60 years. It is located at the relic hall on main street, which historically was the home of Bishop William S. Seely back in 1872, when the 'treaty' was signed.

So, lets unpack the truth here. First, only congress had the authority to sign treaties with the Indians, as I have pointed out countless times. This was not a treaty and was never ratified by Congress, it was an agreement. Second, Tabby was the principal Chief of the Timpanogos at the time, he was not a "sub-Chief of Black Hawk." And his name was not Tabiona. Third, according to our Timeline, there were 932 Indian deaths, and 238 whites. This does not take into account the thousands more Indian deaths that were the result of starvation, small poxs, and numerous other diseases that spread among the Timpanogos Nation. And last, but least, the war cost the Mormon church one and a half million, not Utah. Utah wasn't a state until 1896.

Also see below 07/09/2022 entry about the new monument just installed in Mount Pleasant, Utah.

See more information.



More Fallacious Stories; This one is about Chief Wakara's burial.

There are many conflicting accounts about the location of Wakara's grave and how he was buried. Mormons say that Wakara was buried in a "sepulcher of stone" on the rugged eastern hillside above this little community of Meadow, Utah. And that his grave was located in Dry Canyon, the first canyon north of Corn Creek.

Here's where the story goes off the rails. Mormon accounts alleged that Wakara's two wives and some Paiute children were "offered up" as a sacrifice on the day of his burial. Besides his weapons, trinkets, and presents, the two wives and a young boy "were fastened alive to the pedestal beside Wakara's body." It is also presumed whites robbed the grave in 1909.

The Territorial Statehouse and State Park in Fillmore describe Wakara's burial. I asked Perry Murdock if his great-great-grandfather Wakara was buried with two children. He was puzzled. "I can tell you we would never do such a thing. That's not our tradition. No, that wouldn't happen. we have sacrificed a horse sometimes so the person's favorite animal would be with him, but we would never treat our women and children that way."

The Fillmore State Exhibit is embarrassing, a slanderous one-sided story meant to dehumanize and moralize the indigenous peoples of Utah as a tourist attraction. It is disgraceful. For more information see: Wakara



In a 2004 interview, I had with the late historian Dr. Floyd O'Neil at the University of Utah. O'Neil explained that "no treaties were made between the Indian people of Utah and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)." He explained that 'agreements' were made between the Mormon Church and the indigenous people. "At best, these agreements were divisive to trick the Indians into giving up their land," he said. The Federal Government was the only one with the legal authority to make treaties. These so-called treaties were made in Heber, Mt. Pleasant, Ephraim, Cedar Valley &, etc., but Congress never ratified one.

The question that keeps coming up is "where are these treaties now?" Its a great question because as you travel around Utah towns and cities, you see any number of monuments that clearly state that "a treaty was signed with the Utes that ended the Black Hawk War." Where are these treaties? - Phillip B Gottfredson


Hutchings Museum Lehi, Utah

Have you visited the Hutchings museum in Lehi, Utah? If not, put it on your list of things to do. I had the pleasure of meeting with the museums director Daniel Larsen who invited me to talk about the history of the Black Hawk War and the Timpanogos Tribe. We spent a couple hours discusing various aspects of the war. Daniela has also been working with Mary Meyer Chief Excutive of the Timpanogos Nation.

Daniela invited me to speak at the museum about my book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, and my decades of work on the war and Native peoples in Utah. Though the date hasn't been set yet, I will annouce it here when the time comes.

I am truly grateful to Daniela and the Hutchings Museum in their willingness to educate people on the history of Utah's first Nations peoples. ~ Phillip B Gottfredson


Have You Read The Utah State Consitution?

Article III Ordinance

[Right to public domain disclaimed -- Taxation of lands -- Exemption.] Second: -- The people inhabiting this State do affirm and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands lying within the boundaries hereof, and to all lands lying within said limits owned or held by any Indian or Indian tribes, and that until the title thereto shall have been extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject to the disposition of the United States, and said Indian lands shall remain under the absolute jurisdiction and control of the Congress of the United States. The lands belonging to citizens of the United States, residing without this State shall never be taxed at a higher rate than the lands belonging to residents of this State; but nothing in this ordinance shall preclude this state from taxing, as other lands are taxed, any lands owned or held by any Indian who has severed his tribal relations, and has obtained from the United States or from any person, by patent or other grant, a title thereto, save and except such lands as have been or may be granted to any Indian or Indians under any act of Congress, containing a provision exempting the lands thus granted from taxation, which last mentioned lands shall be exempt from taxation so long, and to such extent, as is or may be provided in the act of Congress granting the same



What does the term "Federally-Recognized Tribe" mean?

According to the United States Department of Justice, "Recognition" is a legal term meaning that the United States recognizes a government-to-government relationship with a Tribe and that a Tribe exists politically in a "domestic dependent nation" status. Federally-recognized Tribes possess certain inherent powers of self-government and entitlement to certain federal benefits, services, and protections because of the special trust relationship.

Example of "benefits" are, education, social services, law enforcement, courts, real estate services, agriculture and range management, and resource protection.

The Department of the Interior says, "The Federal acknowledgement regulations, known as “Procedures for Establishing that an American Indian Group Exists as an Indian Tribe,” 25 CFR Part 83, govern the Department’s administrative process for determining which groups are “Indian tribes” within the meaning of Federal law.  The Department’s regulations are intended to apply to groups that can establish a substantially continuous tribal existence and that have functioned as autonomous entities throughout history until the present.  When the Department acknowledges an Indian tribe, it is acknowledging that an inherent sovereign continues to exist.  The Department is not “granting” sovereign status or powers to the tribe, nor creating a tribe made up of Indian descendants."

NOTE: Indigenous rights, vested treaty rights, and sovereignty rights remain intact as being the supreme law-of-the-land wheather a Tribe is formally recognized or not.

Achieving recognition can take years, decades or more.

"Indian Laws," as they are called, are extremely complex. Colonization not only resulted in loss of land for First Nation peoples, they were made wards of government. Native Americans were denied having any say in the laws that govern them.


Here We Go Again - New monument in Mount Pleasant, Utah claiming Chief Sanpitch was Ute

July 2, 2022 the unveiling of a new monument in Mount Pleasant, Utah took place honoring Chief Sanpitch. Chief Sanpitch(Tenaciono) was a son of Chief Moonch, and the father of Black Hawk whoes mother was Tanar-oh-wich and gave birth to several children. Sanpitch was a brother of Timpanogos leaders Wakara, Sowiette, Arapeen, Ammon, Tobia (Tabby), and Grospean. However, that's not how the monuments plaque reads. It clearly states that Sanpitch was Ute. See Sanpitch for more information.

Chief Sanpitch monument plaque Mount Plesant, Utah.

As explained in our 06/28/2022 post below, the Utes are not Shoshoni and were not in Utah untill 1881.

Chief Sanpitch was a signor of the 1865 treaty at Spanish Fork. There were no Utes present at the signing of the treaty.

See article in the Sanpete Messager



Update: Our feedback period is now closed.



Uintah Valley Reservation or Uinta & Ouray Reservation-Which is it?

Abraham Lincoln in 1861 that created the Uintah Valley Reservation. Caleb B. Smith, Secretary of the Department of Interior, recommended to President Lincoln that the Uintah Valley, in the Territory of Utah, be set apart and reserved for the use and occupancy of Indian Tribes of Utah. "I respectfully recommend that you order the entire valley of the Uintah River within Utah Territory, extending on both sides of said river to the first range of contiguous mountains on each side, to be reserved to the United States and set apart as an Indian reservation," he said. President Abraham Lincoln responded, "Executive Office Oct. 3, 1861," with the President's words, "Let the reservation be established, as recommended by the Secretary of the Interior." The Uintah Valley Reservation was then enacted into law on May 5, 1864, by the Act of Congress.

The Uintah Valley Reservation was for the exclusive use of the Indians of Utah, namely the Timpanogos Nation, who are the indigenous 'Indians of Utah.' President Lincoln does not reference the "Uintah & Ouray Reservation." Nor make any reference to the "Utes" or Ute Indians of Colorado or "Confederated Utes of Colorado" whatsoever. The Timpanogos of the Wasatch were sent to the Uintah Valley Reservation in 1873.

So, why do we see a any number of maps and documents referencing the Uintah & Ouray Reservation in utah? That is the question!

The Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation is federally recognized but not until 1937, under the constitutional name "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation." "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is the Ute Nation's constitutional name, NOT A RESERVATION. There has never been congressional action that created a reservation called the "Uintah & Ouray Reservation." The Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation lives on the Uintah Valley Reservation and are referred to as the Northern Ute.

You may ask, why do the Utes use that name? Why do Utah maps label the Uintah Valley Reservation as the Uintah & Ouray Reservation? Maybe some one else can answer that question, we have our theories. What we do know is that it causes a lot of unnecessary confusion, and maybe intentionally.


Changes to our home page has been on-going over the past year and more. Why? Its complicated to explain the technical requirements of SEO (search engine optimization) and visitor navigation. People today use any number of devices from cell phones, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. But it is critical to our website's success that we are able to meet all those requirements and much more. at the present averages the 7th position on Google's results page. Out of three million pages found on the search term "black hawk war Utah," 7th position is amazing! But it hasn't been easy. The competition is enormous, and results can change at anytime.

More importantly is navigation. It is extremely important to our visitors to quickly and with ease find what they are looking for. Especially those who are first-time visitors who may not know anything about Utah's Black Hawk War, they too need answers.

It might be interesting to some that began in Utah before the year 2000, but is not a local Utah website. Though Phillip B Gottfredson is from Utah, born and raised, and lives there five months out of the year, we are based in Parker, Arizona. Our server is in California. We are world-wide. Most of our visitors come from Utah, and cities across the United States. Many others come from Great Britain, Denmark, Brazil, Canada, China, France, and Germany, to name some.

The good news. We are hopeful that we are now on target because of the adjustments we have made, and any changes going forward should be minor(fingers crossed).

Because of people like you who have donated and purchased our book, has been able to deliver rich and informative content FREE to the public for over two decades!

Thank you so very much! :-)



I want to acknowledge artist Carol Lahoma Pettit Harding for her tremendous contribution and generosity. Carol created the cover for my book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. Please visit our Source Material page for more information. - Phillip B Gottfredson


We mistakenly listed the Cree Nation as being from Wyoming on our main page. The Cree originate from Canada and some migrated to North Central Montana. We have made the correction. Our apologies to the Cree Nation.


Only 7 days remaining when we will close our feedback link listed below. So far we have not recieved any comments, which is interesting. Meanwhile traffic to our site remains as strong as ever. Time spent on our site has increased over last year. We are grateful to our visitors for your loyal support.


Your feedback is important as we strive to bring you essential information about the Black Hawk War in Utah. So, through June, we have set up a special e-mail account where you can comment on our website, make suggestions, ask questions, and whatever is on your mind. All comments will remain private, with no exceptions. At the end of 30 days, we will delete this special e-mail account. So now is a unique opportunity to give us your feedback directly at:. Just copy & paste our address into your e-mail client.

NOTE: Your privacy is important to us. will never your e-mail address for any purpose other than to reply back to you only if you give us permission to do so.

Thank you, looking forward to hearing from you!

Phillip B Gottfredson


Greetings to everyone. We decided to permanently delete Chief Black Hawk's Biography from our website. The reason is that the material was redundant to the material found on the Timpanogos Biography page. Black Hawk's Biography page was one of the first pages written back in 2002 when we launched our website. It has since become obsolete. And from a technical standpoint was in conflict with SEO(Search Engine Optimization) best practices. We are automatically redirecting all traffic to the Black Hawk's Biography page to the Timpanogos Biography page instead.

We sincerely apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. - Team



TREATIES IN UTAH - Phillip B Gottfredson

There seems to be some confusion about treaties in the State of Utah that is important to understand.

In 2004 I discussed treaties in Utah with Dr. Floyd O'Neil at the University of Utah. O'Neil explained that "no treaties were made between the Indian people of Utah and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)." He explained that 'agreements' were made between the Mormon Church and the indigenous people. "At best, these agreements were divisive to trick the Indians into giving up their land, he said. The Federal Government was the only one with the legal authority to make treaties. These so-called treaties were made in Heber, Mt. Pleasant, Ephraim, Cedar Valley &, etc., but Congress never ratified one.

The Spanish Fork treaty was between Mormon colonists and the Timpanogos Tribe in 1865 at the peak of the Black Hawk War. The treaty would fail ratification by Congress as it bore the signature of Brigham Young. Congress declared, "rather than associate with Brigham Young on such an occasion, they would have the negotiations fail; they would rather the Indians, than the Mormons, would have the land." - Commission of Indian Affairs Annual Report 1865, O.H. Irish (Source: Department of the Interior)

The significance of the Spanish Fork treaty is that it was intended for the Timpanogos Nation and signed by their leaders. None of the seven Tribes of Colorado known today as "Colorado Utes" were named. One exception was the Yampa Ute, who were named, but any claim they may have had was relinquished by them in the Ute Treaty of 1868 in Colorado, which had nothing to do with Utah. Leaving intact the homeland of the Timpanogos Nation. The "Sanpete Utes" as they were referred to in the treaty are not Ute. Sanpete gets its name from Chief Sanpitch, Black Hawk's father, Timpanogos. Historians mistakenly identify Timpanogos with Colorado Tribes. The Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and are not enrolled members of the Ute Nation. (Source: Timpanogos Nation, Commission of Indian Affairs Annual Report 1865, O.H. Irish and Department of the Interior.)

See Black Hawk War Treaties for more information.

I understand it gets confusing, I hope my explanation helps to clarify this subject.



Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative

Secretary of the Department of the Interior Debb Haaland has released a stunning Investigative Report on the Indian boarding schools in the U.S. The report comprehensively addresses the facts and consequences of federal Indian boarding school policies—implemented for more than a century and a half—resulting in cultural assimilation and territorial dispossession of Indigenous peoples.

Consisting of 408 federal schools across 37 states, including 21 schools in Alaska and seven schools in Hawaii, we at are grateful to Secretary Halland for launching this long-overdue investigation into this tragic time in our history.

We encourage our followers and supporters to visit our Facebook page Black Hawk War; Timpanogos of the Wasatch, for the latest developments, insights, and comments. If you are not already a member of our group - please join our campfire! It's eazy-pezzey!




Phillip B Gottfredson's Bio & Source Material page has always been popular because there are many resources for those who are researching the Black Hawk War. We have made it even better by adding hotlinks in the PUBLICATIONS section to Amazon, where you can purchase some of the great books we have listed about the Black Hawk War.

We hope you find this added feature convient! :-)



Slate Canyon Earth Day - First People's History with the Timpanogos Nation

Mary Murdock Meyer Chief Executive Timpanogos Nation, and author Phillip B Gottfredson were guest speakers at the annual Slate Canyon Earth Day event held at the mouth of Slate Canyon above Provo, Utah today. Mary spoke about Native teachings and the sacredness of all things. "We are grateful to Kristina Davis, a faculty adjunct in UVU’s Biology department, for inviting us to speak at this event," said Gottfredson. What was suspose to be a half hour speech went over two hours because people were so interested in Native teachings. "Mary and I are so please that people have sincere interest in Utah's Native culture and protecting our enviornment," Mr. Gottfredson added.



It's Time to Clean Up Utah's History


Kiowa Apache man called Black HawkFACT: This is NOT Utah's Black Hawk! This is a photo of a Kiowa Apache man called Black Hawk. This portrait is an Albumen print taken in 1875 by William S. Soule who was the post photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. It has been provided by the Smithsonian collection.

For decades, this photo has been published many times on the internet and in numorous books and publications as being Utah's Black Hawk. There are no known photos of Antonga Black Hawk. Utah's Black Hawk died in 1870. HELLO, anyone listening?

Utah's Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was Snake Shoshoni and was buried at Spring Lake, Utah in 1870. He was not from Oklahoma!


Chief Colorow of the Colorado Ute.

FACT: This is not Utah's Chief Walker. This is a photo of Chief Colorow of the Colorado Ute Nation who died in 1888.

This photo, for over 20 years has been published many times on the internet as being Chief Walker. Chief Wakara was the principal Chief of the Timpanogos, and died in 1855. Did you know, he was born Apache and adopted by the Colorado Utes?

Three things to remember:

1. The Timpanogos are not Ute and never were. They are Snake Shoshone. The Utes are not Shoshone.

2. Colorow was a Chief of the Colorado Utes. He was an Apache.

3. Utah's Black Hawk was born at Spring Lake, Utah circa 1838, died 1873 at Spring Lake. He never was at Fort Sill in Oklahoma. There are no known photos of Utah's Black Hawk.

We hope this will be clear up some misinformation that is on the internet. It's a also a fact that there were 3 or more indigenous people in Utah's history that were named Black Hawk. So we need to appreciate that mistakes are made. Example, for nearly ten years I too believed the Timpanogos and Ute were the same tribe, until I finally met Mary Murdock Meyer Executive Chief of the Timpanogos. And to be frank, it really pissed me off when I learned I basically had to start all over again in my research. Not to mention, I had to re-write some eighty pages on our website. I will always be grateful to Mary for setting me straight though. - Phillip B Gottfredson



The Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation speaks about Utah Lake (Mary Murdock Meyer) Video



Black Hawk Productions' website is a work-in-progress as we continue to bring to our followers an accurate and detailed account of the Utah Black Hawk War.

Black Hawk's biography was first written in around 2005 while I was living in Oregon with the Shoshone. Since then, I have found lots of new and exciting information published in my book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace.

Since the release of my book, our website has undergone extensive revision, as many of you are aware. As our website has grown in popularity, so has the demand for fresh material. Black Hawk's biography, in my opinion, needs a refresh. It will take some time to update it, so please be patient as we go through the process.

Thank you very much for your loyalty.

Phillip B Gottfredson




by Phillip B Gottfredson

Back in Feb. of 2021 we posted an article about the name Antonga Black Hawk if it was infact his real name. And we promised we would keep you updated on our progress investigating this question.

A decade or more ago, I talked with three knowledgeable Utes, Vinita Taveapont, Loya Arum, and Sylvia Cornpeach. I had tremendous respect for them; sadly, all three have since crossed over. I recorded in my research journal that they agreed that Black Hawk's name was "Noonch." However, I could never find any documentation to support their claim.

Then I met the Timpanogos. MaryMeyer gave a plethora of documents; among them was the Dominguez Escalante journal that said, "Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitza-pun-inchi, Pan-chu-cun-quibiran, and Picu-chi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch." The eight brothers were the uncles of Antonga Black Hawk, who was the son of Sanpitch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walker), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Kanosh, and Grospeen, who were known as the "Royal Bloodline."

Could it be that Vineta, Loya, and Sylvia were right? Black Hawk's grandfather was Moonch, and perhaps he was named after his grandfather. They said "Noonch," only one letter off from Moonch.

I can't find any definitive proof that "Antonga" was his name, period. Meanwhile, the search continues, and we will give you updates as they occur.




In Remembrance of Battle Creek Canyon and Fort Utah

February 29, 1849, marks the first of six massacres of the Timpanogos at the hands of Mormon colonists. Young Black Hawk was taken captive as his family was murdered at Battle Creek Canyon. Little Chief was wet with tears, and his horse wet with sweat. A year later, on February 9, 1850, a second massacre occurred at Fort Utah when 70 Timpanogos were killed, and their bodies decapitated. The decapitated heads were then sent to Washington and sold for scientific examination.

Please, let's take a moment and remember this tragic event in American history and honor the Timpanogos Tribe, whose only crime was they were "Indian."

- Phillip B Gottfredson


Tabernacle dig yields remains

According to an article published by the Deseret News Paper in 2005 "Construction crews doing seismic retrofitting work on the Salt Lake Tabernacle on Temple Square apparently have unearthed the remains of a Native American in a concrete vault." See article on our Facebook page at:



Department Of The Interior to remove derogatory names from 11 Utah sites

According to the Salt Lake Tribune, Deb Haaland has issued two federal orders to remove the term "squaw" from geological features in Utah. Haaland said "Racist terms have no place in our vernacular on our federal lands. Our Nation's lands and waters should be places to celebrate the outdoors and our shared cultural heritage - not to perpetuate the legacies of oppression."

The Tribune points out that the term "squaw" is used as a sexual slur for Native American women."

See article here



The Unsanitized Version of the Utah Black Hawk War

Since 2002 Black Hawk Productions has brought you the unsanitized version of Utah's Black Hawk War, and our work is not complete. Our objective has been to educate people about the unjust and unnecessary devastation it has brought to the Timpanogos Tribe of Utah, dedicated in our efforts to help the Timpanogos Nation find its rightful place in Utah's history. 

"Over the many years, I have spent considerable time helping people who have contacted me with essential questions concerning war," said Phillip B Gottfredson, who founded Black Hawk Productions in 1989. "It has been a powerful experience making new friends and listening to their personal stories about their ancestors who were in the war. And no less important the countless indigenous people who gave me a greater understanding of those trying times, I am eternally grateful." 

INTERVIEWS FROM 1989 TO PRESENT: Personal Interviews of numerous descendants of early Utah Pioneers; oral histories while living with members of various Native American Tribes throughout North and South America; Western Shoshone, Colorado Utes, Grandriver Ute, Uncompahgre Ute, Yampa Ute, Moache Ute, Wiminuche Ute, Ute Mountain Ute, and Navajo Dine'. Additional interviews with Hopi, Zuni, Pueblo, Apache, Shoshone, Arapaho, Lakota, Silets, Makah, Southern Paiute, Northern Paiute, Yrok, Anishinaabe, Cherokee, Choctaw, Inca, and Mayan of San Pedro Guatemala. Living descendants of Timpanogos Chiefs Walkara, Sowiette, Arapeen, Sanpitch, Ammon, Tobia (Tabby), and Grospeen (all brothers), and Black Hawk (son of Sanpitch), Chief Executive Mary Meyer and Members of the Timpanogos Nation Uintah Valley Reservation;


Will Bagley; Friend & Mentor

Will Bagley author of "Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Moutain Meadows," passed away September 28, 2021.

Will was the first historian I came to be personally acquainted with when I began my research of the Black Hawk War in Utah. I am forever grateful to Will for the many hours we spent discussing Mormon history. Whenever I had questions, he was my go-to historian, for I always knew Will would give me informed and honest answers.

Admired and respected by thousands, he will be greatly missed.

- Phillip B Gottfredson


The Timpanogos Make A Rare Public Appearance

Brigham Young University ecology professor Ben Abbott invited Chief Executive Mary Meyer of the Timpanogos Nation to speak at the Utah Lake symposium that was held at Utah Valley University on June 5th. Utah Lake has been in decline from years of abuse and neglect going back decades. Toxic algae blooms, and invasive fish such as carp have led to developers recommending the lake be dredged and islands built in an effort to accommodate Utah Valley's burgeoning population growth. Whereas ecologists and scientists disagree with such plans saying it would drastically change the ecology of the lake.

Quoting from the Salt Lake Tribune article, “It seems to me this project would do more to damage than help,” said Meyer, whose ancestors once inhabited the lake shore, in her opening remarks. “Utah, I ask that you please take heed to what the experts opposing this project have to say. Our people and the reeds around this lake give you your name. We stand in favor of restoring the lake to its natural beauty, but have to oppose privatizing and desecrating this historic sacred site.” (See the full article in the Salt Lake Tribune)

More information regarding the Timpanogos Nation and the extraordinary support they have found will be announced soon by the Tribe on their website: The Timpanogos Nation; Uinta Valley Reservation.




It has been an exciting month for the Timpanogos Tribe of Utah. The good news is that a museum, historian, archeologist, archivist, and anthropologist scholars have expressed to the Timpanogos that they are willing to make a sincere effort to ensure they have their rightful place in Utah and American history.

"The meetings have gone well and have been productive," said Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation. Mary expresses cautious optimism that this may be the right time for long-overdue reconciliation and new beginnings for the Tribe.

More details to come as they are made available by the Tribal council.



The State of Utah Water Rights Violation Uintah Valley Reservation

According to an article published in the Salt Lake Tribune on 05/13/2021 by Emma Penrod, the State of Utah and the CUP are attempting to take water from the Uintah Valley Reservation ignoring aboriginal treaty rights. The Ute Nation is suing the State to get back it's water "asserting that the misapproriation is one of a decades-long string of racially motivated schemes to deprive it of it's rights and property", according to the article.

"Rights and property" have been at the core of every conflict between the First Nation peoples of Utah and Mormon colonists since 1847. Hat's off to the Ute Nation for taking a stand to protect the Uintah Valley Reservation's valuable resources essential to life it's self. The State of Utah has no jurisdiction what-so-ever on tribal land according to the Tenth District court.

We are also grateful to the Salt Lake Tribune for making the public aware of the injustices aboriginal people of Utah have had to fight for, from traditional tribal homelands, hunting rights, fishing rights, the timber on their land, water rights, their culture, their religion, their identity, and freedom.




We are pleased to announce Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe, and myself Phillip B Gottfredson have updated our story on the Walker War of 1853. We felt it was time to address the accuracy of Wakara's controversial burial, and his alleged slave trade.

For decades historians have written that two women were sacrificed and placed in his grave along with two live children and anywhere from 12 to 50 horses, depending on which Whiteman's account you read. And that Wakara stole from his own blood relatives their children and sold them as slaves. Mary, along with members of the Timpanogos Tribe, we have had numerous discussions about this story that has circulated for many decades, and gone by unchallenged. And of coarse no one has ever asked the Timpanogos their version of the story.

We invite you to read the Timpanogos first-ever version of Wakara's story.



There were several broken links throughout and have been fixed. We apologies for any inconvenience.

05/03/2021 (broken link has been fixed)

Jay Winter Nightwolf: American Indian & Indigenous Peoples Truths

The Timpanogos Matter (Mary Meyer & Phil Gottfredson)

Mary Murdock Meyer is the Chief Executive of the Snake Shoshone Timpanogos Nation."As Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation I [Mary Meyer] have pondered many times how our people were forgotten. We are the living descendents of legendary Chiefs Walkara, Kanosh, Tabby, Arropeen, Washakie, Tintic, Sowiette, Sanpitch and others, who extended their hospitality to Mormon leader Brigham Young and his followers."Phillip B Gottfredson has been researching the Black Hawk War since 1989 and has published "My Journey to Understand... Black Hawks Mission of Peace"."Some 70,000 Timpanogos Indians — the aboriginal people of Utah — died from violence, starvation, and disease after Mormon colonists stole their land and destroyed their culture over a 21-year timeframe according to the detailed account Gottfredson learned from the Native Americans." Music:  Keep My Memory (Alexis Raeana feat. Charly Lowry)Jay Winter Nightwolf, HostVerona Iriarte, PrayerMoe Thomas, Production Editor

Please join Mary Murdock Meyer and Phillip B Gottfredson in a live podcast with Jay Winter Nightwolf. Recorded live a year ago from Mary's home on the Uintah Valley Reservation, Mary and Phillip engage in a powerful conversation with long-time talk host Jay Winter Nightwolf discussing the Timpanogos Nation and the Black Hawk War of Utah. Listen now.




More updates to our website... REALLY@!?

from Phillip B Gottfredson:

Yes, but it was necessary. The reason this time has to do with SEO (search engine optimization). SEO is the art of getting the search engines to give your website high rankings in the search results. It is said Google is making a core change to it's search engine algorithms this coming May. And in order to meet their new requirements we have had to make a few more changes. It gets very complicated when designing a website in todays world of technology. It used to be so easy. And since I am an old-school web-designer the learning curve has been very challenging. But I have done my homework and hopefully the changes I have made are going to work. (fingers crossed)

Back in 2002 when I first launched this website, we were the only website on the internet talking about the Black Hawk War. Now there's thousands. The competition is getting harder all the time. And the catch 22 is, we have made thousands of changes over the past two years and that by itself has caused some SEO problems. The solution is to let it go now. Stop making changes and let the search engines catch up to what we have done.

So the good news is no more changes for at least until June when we can evaluate everything again.




We've come along ways my friends. There can be no doubt the presence of the Timpanogos Nation is on the internet. All our hard word work and persistence is finally being realized not only in Utah, but nationally and internationally.

It is interesting that Brazil has taken a consistent interest. Website statistics show us they have been consistent in visiting our websites. China, Netherlands, Great Britain, Germany, France, and Sweden are among a growing crowd of visitors as well.

For those who don't know about Ft. Duchesne it is the home of the Timpanogos Nation which is located in the north-eastern corner of the State of Utah. Established in 1886 by the United States government as a fort, it was closed 1912. Population of Ft. Duchesne is roughly 800 and is located on the Uinta Valley Reservation that was established by President Abraham Lincoln in the year 1861.

The Timpanogos just four years ago was barely known, but that is changing know. Hopefully they can achieve long over-due federal recognition they so justly deserve.

May the Timpanogos forever walk in beauty. - Phillip B Gottfredson




In the previous article we discused the name Antonga and if perhaps it is of Spanish origin. If it is Spanish in origin then the letter 'G' would be silent. Antonga would be pronounced 'A-n-t-o-n-u-a' which could explain the difference in spellings 'Antongar" "Antongua" and a couple others.



Historian Phillip B Gottfredson | Author "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace"

The name "Antonga" has for decades been a topic of many discussions with the Timpanogos Tribe. Was his real name "Antonga" and where did it come from? In the coming months we will be exploring this issue in an effort to find the truth.

"There are several different spellings" said Mr. Gottfredson. "Antonga being the most widely accepted. "Antongua" and "Antongar" are another versions I have seen in several historical accounts. I believe the name is Spanish in origin. The reasoning being that in those days Mexico bordered Utah to the south and the Timpanogos had trade relations with their Spanish-speaking neighbors. I believe it was a nick-name and may have been "Antonia" translated means "worthy of praise." One thing is certain, the Timpanogos don't recognise the name Antonga."

Updates to this article will be posted as our research progresses.



Hi, this Phillip Gottfredson;

Some of the articles on our website I wrote a decade or more ago during the time I was learning about the Black Hawk War. I have been reviewing those articles and corrected my mistakes. For example, two articles one being 'John O'Sullivan's Manifest Destiny' and the other 'The Doctrine of Discovery.' I realize now that at the time I wrote these around 2009 I was confused, and for that reason assumed both were somehow interrelated. I apologize for the oversight. The Doctrine of Discovery was written by Christian monarchs in 1452. Whereas Manifest Destiny was written in 1839. However, it is important to know that both did play a role in the genocide of Native Americans.

And incidently, our page on The Doctrine of Discovery has gone viral three days in a row and still going.

Thank you for your patience and understanding. Stay safe and keep up the good fight.




Good news all our updates have been completed!

We encourage everyone to 'REFRESH' or 'RELOAD' the page you are on for any updates to appear. This is especially important if you are a regular visitor to clear your browser cache. New visitors don't have to do anything.

We will continue to monitor our website and make any routine corrections.

Again thank you for your patience and we appologize for any inconvienance you may have experienced during this exausting process.

~ BlackHawkProductions.Com Team





Black Hawk Productions has nearly completed all upgrades and updates to our website. It has been a long and tiring process having made over 700 changes since May of this year.

Navigation of our website has been a challenge. Today we uploaded navigational changes that we hope will make it easier for our visitors to find what they are looking for. We will continue to closely monitor the results of our efforts and make any adjustments when necessary.

Overhaul we are seeing high performance scores in the 90% range due to our efforts, and our bounce rate has dropped significantly into the 60% range. This means our visitors are staying on our site longer and finding good information, and the search engines are liking us more too.

Now that we have come to the end of our 'house-cleaning-chores' as it were, we can return to what we do best - researching the Utah Black Hawk War.

Thanks again everyone for your patience and on-going support. Stay Safe out there, and may we all find the courage and strength to endure these difficult times.



Over the past weeks we have made several updates to our many topics and stories on The Black Hawk War. Proofreading all the material is a major undertaking, and while there much more to do we are working on it day and night.

Significant changes were made to our main website menu. We have structured and reordered the links to topics and stories making it easier for our visitors to find what they are looking for or browse. We also changed the settings on our Search Tool so results are more accurate.

Changes were made to our home page making it shorter and more to-the-point and hopefully bringing clarity to the intention and purpose of our website.

We apologize for any inconvenience we may have caused during this process. We suggest that our returning visitors 'refresh' their browsers to see our latest updates sooner than later.

Thank you! And please stay safe and well out there. :-)



A Huge Problem For The State of Utah

by Author: Phillip B Gottfredson

For Utah's historians, scholars, and the State Of Utah to accept that the fact that the Timpanogos Tribe and the Ute Tribe are two distinctly different Tribes creates a huge problem.

For over a century, historians in Utah have mistakenly identified the Snake-Shoshone Timpanogostzis Nation as being Colorado Utes. Whereas the Utes and Timpanogos are two distinctly different Nations in origin, ancestral bloodlines, language, and customs. However, writers sometimes refer to them as "Timpanogos Ute" which is an Contradiction, a contradiction in terms. First Nations identity is critical in our understanding of the Black Hawk War in Utah, yet it remains the most overlooked topic causing inaccuracies in our histories leading to baseless conclusions, confusion, and false assumptions. The time has come to clear up some of these inaccuracies and explain the origins of these two individual Nations and how they both ended up on the same Uintah Valley Reservation. (See The Timpanogos-Ute Contradiction)

Throughout the state of Utah are countless historical markers, and burial headstones that refer to the Utes and the Black Hawk War. Not to mention countless publications books and records.

In spite of more than adequate documentation that proves the Timpanogos and Utes are separate Tribes, for reasons herein stated the powers-to-be are ignoring the truth. Meanwhile, a thousand member Tribe namely the Timpanogos, continue to struggle to be recognized by the federal government. For over 20 years they have fought for Federal Recognition status and have filed with the Department of the Interior over 13000 pages of documentation proving they are the original inhabitants of Utah, yet the Department of the Interior has not acted. They have not refused to give the Timpanogos their recognition, they simply make excuses for delaying their decision.

The facts are undisputable, the Timpanogos are who they say they are. But the Timpanogos didn't create the problem. The way I see it is, the blame falls squarely in the lap of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) and their one-sided history that has gone unchallenged for over a century. As I have said many times publicly, "celebrated scholars and award-winning authors who have written about the war never asked or cared what the Native Americans they studied had to say about their work. Nor did they ask them to analyze or interpret their books, or to share their own version of the particular story being told." If they had, its likely there wouldn't be this dilemma they are now faced with. There truth is often paradoxical.

As inconvenient the truth may be for the State of Utah, scholars and historians, and the agony they may encounter is inconsequential when compared to what the Timpanogos Tribe has suffered for over the past 150 years. University of Utah Prof. Daniel McCool explained, "We took from them almost all their land—the reservations are just a tiny remnant of traditional tribal homelands," We tried to take from them their hunting rights, their fishing rights, the timber on their land. We tried to take from them their water rights. We tried to take from them their culture, their religion, their identity, and perhaps most importantly, we tried to take from them their freedom."

As for the Timpanogos, they don't want pity, they only want justice.



Our Message Is Spreading Internationally

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This is exciting news for us as we have devoted endless hours over the years to achieve this kind of recognition. Thank you everyone for making a great success!



Interview With Author: Phillip B Gottfredson and The Oak Leaf by Ellinor IsadeRoss Eklöf of Sweden have teamed up to bring you a podcast featuring Author: Phillip B Gottfredson . Mr Gottfredson will be discussing the Utah Black Hawk War for about an hour. It was pre-recorded so you can listen in when it is convienant for you. You are invited!



Some changes to the content of our website have been made. Our goal is to provide our visitors with accurate and up-to-date material about the Utah Black Hawk War as has been our tradition for nearly two decades now. As we continue our tradition, we will be rewriting and updating our content as we go forward, which is good, and some cases overdue.

The Utah Black Hawk War website has the distinction of being the go-to website for in-depth information on the Utah Indian wars. And it's FREE! It is nice when we receive a donation once-in-awhile though, after all, we do spend long hours each day maintaining our website for your interests and convenience. It a good feeling when someone shows their appreciation with a donation or purchasing one of our books. THANK YOU! :-)



We have added to our SITE DIRECTORY a site-search tool. Now you can search our entire website for any subject you are looking for.



The Utah Black Hawk War by Phillip B Gottfredson website has upgraded our Facebook page to PRIVATE to better serve the privacy of our members.

Did you know we mange three Facebook pages all relevant to Indigenous peoples in both North and South America? Follow us on Facebook and you will have access to all three!



From Phillip B Gottfredson

Just returned home in Arizona for the winter. It was a good summer up in Utah spending time with friends and the Timpanogos Tribe. And I talked to many people who have read My Journey to Understand... Black Hawks Mission of peace. The book is selling well in Utah. Most notable were the few staunch Mormons I spoke with who loved the book. It was surprising to me how well they liked it. One gentleman told me he read it twice, and though he felt I was hard on the Mormon church, he expressed his sincere appreciation that the truth has been revealed. Honestly... I was rather apprehensive how those who have been born and raised in the church would react, but this man I spoke with for a couple hours said the time is log over due that we understand what really happened.

The Timpanogos are equally happy with the book, one tribal elder said she reads it every night before she goes to bed. She couldn't thank me enough for writing it. "Finally our history is being told" she said.

Of coarse the Timpanogos collaborated with me on the book making sure it was accurate. And I am truly grateful for their help. It was a good trip, and I am looking forward to next spring when I again will journey to the Uinta Valley Reservation for the summer.



From Phillip B Gottfredson

We are deeply saddened from all the tragedy that is gripping our country and around the world. In my 75 years I can't recall anything that has been so bad as it is now. And I don't think there is anyone who isn't being affected in some way. People, animals, plants, nothing and no one is left out, we truly are in this togeather.

Yet, I have hope. I believe in the human spirit. We will find the way to come togeather and rebuild our lives again, and better. This is a time of great change throughout the world. And as long as we remain humble and prayerful and do what needs to be done, things will get better. It will take time, but it will happen.

Please stay safe, be kind to each other and above all find your warrior spirit. We need each other.





Over the past few days has been changing over to a new server. Inmotion Hosting has long been our internet server, and when they notified us we were required to upgrade our service to a new Apache server we GASPED! Our greatest concern being it could be very disruptive. That our website and e-mail accounts would temporarily go down! Bad timing when we just launched our new books and made major changes to our website. And just before the holiday season?! We however complied, but nothing bad happened. We are truly grateful to Inmotion Hosting for stelar work, even though they warned us there could be some problems, the upgrade was seamless!

So we are loving our new's faster! And fast is good...right? Big hugs for!




Open Letter From Author: Phillip B Gottfredson

Greetings everyone. I wanted to share with you what people are saying about my book "My Journey to Understand... Black Hawk's Mission of Peace." Recently sales of the book have taken off, and I am very grateful to those who are expressing how deeply moved they are by the book on many different levels. Archway Publishing from Simon & Schuster who published the book called me to confirm I have made it on their best-seller list!

More importantly, the other day around 6:30 am I had just got out of bed when a knock came to my door. It was a member of the Timpanogos Tribe I have known for a few years now. John is a hulk of a man, and I invited him in for coffee. He got to the point saying "I have been reading your book. I haven't got very far cause I can't hold back my tears. I have to put it down and after a couple days I read it some more until I can't see through my tears. Its so real to me my brother. I was just passing by going to town and had to stop and tell you."

There are so many stories I could share with you that are even more stunning, but it meant so much to me when John came by because its his ancestors I wrote about.

Being honest with you its all very humbling to me. It causes me to reflect over the past decades and all the beautiful people I met along the way I wish I could go back and do it again. And many have walked on who I miss dearly. But their spirit and the long conversations we had live on in my heart and in my book. I'm speaking of coarse about my Native friends who walked beside me opening my eyes and heart to world I never knew existed.

This book is not a story that is just about the Black Hawk War, but a boy who became his nations leader believing that love can overcome hate. Hypocritical morality. One who respected himself and appreciated others because we are all human. He understood the natural order that all inhabitants of Mother Earth are connected. He loved unconditionally, and forgave unconditionally, that being born human makes you superior to nothing. He knew that true freedom meant being in harmony with his fellow man and all that our Creator gave us. He fought to protect the sacred, his people, and human equality. This was Black Hawk's Mission of Peace.

I end here with a passage from my book I hope you will find inspiring:

A German poet, Johann Wolfgang Goethe wrote, “A man sees in the world what he carries in his heart.” I believe Black Hawk understood that  the path to healing begins within each of us. If you want to see love in the world, then be loving. If you want to find kindness in the world, then be a kind person. If you want there to be peace, then find peace within. Love, humility, honesty, kindness, courage, wisdom, and respect, these virtues we must have in our hearts before we will see them in the world.

Be who you truly are, and come from your heart in all that you do and say. You will find that the language of the heart is love, a universal language understood by all, even the animals who are our relatives, they too understand the language of the heart. We are too much in the habit of blaming others. It’s time we take a long look at what’s in our hearts, and be the person we want others to be.

Prayers and blessing to all my relatives here. Thank you for letting me share.




Black Hawk's Mission of Peace author Phillip B Gottfredson

Phillip B Gottfredson's book "My Journey to Understand...Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" just made publishers Best Seller List! (Archway Publishing From Simon & Shuster)

Get the Book!



Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation and Author: Phillip B Gottfredson were just recently interviewed on the Jay Winter Nightwolf radio show. A 21 year veteran radio host in Washington DC, Jay Nightwolf spent two hours discussing the Utah Black Hawk War, and the legacy of the war with Mary and Phillip. We will post a link to the interview as soon as it becomes available for our folowers to listen too.


Phillip B Gottfredson author of My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. Hi, this is Author: Phillip B Gottfredson and It gives me great pleasure to announce that my great-grandfathers book Indian Depredations in Utah is back in print as of Aug 1, 2020.

2019 marks the 100th anniversary of Peter Gottfredson's old-west classic firsthand account of the Mormon's Black Hawk War in Utah. First published in 1919 by Skelton Publishing CO. Salt Lake City, Utah, only 100 copies were printed.

Indian Depredations in UtahI hope you will lend your support to the preservation of Peter's time-honored work by purchasing our official republication of Peter Gottfredson's original version of Indian Depredations in Utah.


Very gratefully yours, Author: Phillip B Gottfredson



Changes have been made to our website improving functionality. We got rid of all those annoying new tabs that would open every time you open a new page. Now visitors are able browse freely without all those annoying tabs.

We love hearing from you! And so we have made it easy for our visitors who have comments, suggestions, or have questions to join our Facebook page. Just click on CONTACT US and click on the FB icon to join. If you have had a Facebook account for 3 months or more you are automatically approved!

As we announced earlier, we have put back into print Peter Gottfredson's book Indian Depredations In Utah that was first published in 1919. This republication is the original version of Peter's firsthand account of the Black Hawk War in Utah. We are celebrating the 100th year anniversary of Peter's book! And we are planning to come out with a 100th anniversary edition hopefully by the end of this year.

Thank you everyone for helping us to make The Black Hawk War; Utah's Forgotten History website the best!




Author Phillip B Gottfredson 2020

Where did the time go? At the age of 75 I cant help but reminisce a bit. Thirty one years have gone by now since I and my brother David began researching the Black Hawk War in Utah. And 18 years since I first launched this website. That's a lot of water under the bridge! And I have enjoyed every moment with no regrets. I am grateful to all who have supported my project, family, good friends, visitors, and donors. I could never have done it with out you!

What's truly amazing are the extraordinary experiences along the way. In my wildest dreams I never thought researching the Black Hawk War would take me all over the United States and down into south America. From Washington DC, to Washing state, reservations throughout the western states, and to the Mayan in in San Pedro, the past 20 years have been the best years of my life learning from Native American peoples their stories and life-ways.

But I say to you in all sincerity I never felt the journey was about me. In my mind it was always about us, all of us. It's been a quest to find and share with everyone the truth about not only the Black Hawk War, but the indigenous people across this land we all call home. There is so much we can learn from Native people, if only we would listen. And I can't thank them enough for their kindness, generosity, and patience in allowing me into their personal lives. Many have been the times we have along side each other down a lonely road, or through the forests deep, or sat beside and mountain stream, or starring into a warming fire, sometimes with tears of gratitude in our eyes for the beauty that surrounds us all. There is so much beauty to be grateful for if we would only open our hearts.

I always remember a conversation I had with a Hopi friend. In a time of confusion I said, "I love your culture so much I don't want to go back to my own. I feel caught between two worlds not knowing where I belong anymore." My friend spoke softly to me, "having a foot in both worlds is not a bad thing my brother. Its a blessing, a gift from Creator that you can walk in two worlds. And if you can, use that gift and be a bridge-builder." Humbled by his words it was then I understood my purpose in life. I understood why Creator had set my brother and me on a path that would forever change our lives in a good and meaningful way.

I have grown a lot over these past years. And the conclusion I have come to is best summed up in these words:

And after all is said and done about the War and all the suffering it caused, I make this one conclusion: In the end, it’s about the human condition. It is to know that because you were born human, it gives you superiority over nothing. The message of Indigenous America is connection, relationship, and unity. All people are one. One of the direct living descendants of Creator. Chief Joseph said, “We have no qualms about color. It has no meaning. It doesn't mean anything." And I believe that was Black Hawk’s message.

Follow your hearts with love in all that you do. Never be afraid to stand up for your truth. And always remember to use your gifts for the good of all, the two leggeds, the four leggeds, those that fly swim and crawl, the seen and the unseen. We all have a purpose for being here on Mother Earth. Be all that Creator gave you to be if it is good and meant to be for all our relations. Live your life in a good way that you will have no regrets.



Peter Gottfredson's book INDIAN DEPREDATIONS IN UTAH is back in print!

Peter Gottfredson's book Indian Depredations In Utah 1919"When Peter first published his book in 1919, he could only afford a 100 printed copies," said Phillip B Gottfredson Peter's great-grandson. "I first republished Peter's book back in 2002, then there were only a few worn out copies to be found in the libraries."

Mr. Gottfredson went on to say, "Having just published my new book titled My Journey to Understand... Black Hawk's Mission of Peace I felt it fitting that my and Peter's should be made companion books. After all, it was Peter's book that gave me the inspiration to write my own. But there is much more we have in common which I find amusing, others call it fate. I call it coincidence."

"You be the judge, Mr. Gottfredson says. "Here are some facts. It took I and Peter 20 years to write our books. Peter published his in 1919, I published mine in 2019. Peter spent much of his time living in Timpanogos camps. I have spent five summers living with them also. Both book's are about the Timpanogos Nation and the Utah Black Hawk War. The list goes on, but I'm being honest with you, I never dreamed any of this would happen, it was destined to be."

"Grateful that great-grandfather's book has been held in such high regard, Peter would be pleased for sure as it was his wish that his book would have it's place in Utah's history. Out of respect for Peter and the Gottfredson family, I feel it is our duty to honor our ancestors legacy and preserve the dignity of his work that Peter Gottfredson so well deserves with this official edition of Indian Depredations In Utah. It is a paperback edition for now, however we are working on a beautiful cloth bound edition like Peter's original we hope will be out by years end."

"Meanwhile, I hope you will lend your support to the preservation of Peter's work by purchasing our official republication of Peter Gottfredson's book Indian Depredations in Utah." is very proud and excited to add Indian Depredations In Utah to our website as a companion book to Phillip B Gottfredson's book My Journey To Understand... Black Hawk's Mission of Peace.



Battle Creek Canyon Pleasant Grove, Utah

by Phillip B Gottfredson

Carol Pettit Harding and Phillip B Gottfredson plant juniper tree in rememberance of The Timpanogos Tribes whoes lives were lost at Battle Creek Pleasant Grove, Utah.Remembering the lives lost at Battle Creek Canyon September of 1849, Carol Pettit Harding suggested that we plant a blue juniper tree at the site where the massacre took place at Battle Creek Canyon Park above Pleasant, Utah. We met with Deon Giles Park Director who gave us permission to plant the tree. Carol and I prepared the ground, made an offering and prayed over the spot.




Just a few days ago a new member of our Facebook page David McLaughlin uploaded a never before seen document about Chief Arapeen dated 1856. "This is a copy of the original transfer of land comprising what is now Sanpete County, Utah from Arropine (Siegnerouch) to Brigham Young on December 23rd, 1856. I have viewed the original document several times at the Sanpete County Courthouse and am wondering if you have seen this original transfer document as well? So in essence Chief Arapeen signed over the San Pete land, the livestock, the guns, and tools listed to Brigham Young valued at the time at $155,765.00?" wrote David McLaughlin.

"This is a copy of the original transfer of land comprising what is now Sanpete County, Utah from Arropine (Siegnerouch) to Brigham Young on December 23rd, 1856.

The document sparked lively discussion when Chief Excutive Mary Meyer of the Timpanogos Tribe and a direct descendant of Chief Arapeen pointed out that the handwriten document and the three signatures of the witnesses to the document were written by the same person. With that the discussion concluded with the sound of crickets.

We are grateful to David Mclaughlin for sharing this and have posted the document on our Black Hawk War Treaty page for all to see. Or you can logon to our facbookpage and also read the whole coversation.



Did you know that manages three Facebook pages that are dedicated to many different aspects of Native American Nations and Tribes throughout north and south America? Covering a variety of fascinating topics from Native American spiritual beliefs, political and history. For your convenience we have listed them below along with descriptions and links. Currently we have over 2100 followers. Please feel welcome to join our groups and follow us on Facebook!

Phillip B Gottfredson's Group: "The heart knows not the color of the skin." One voice, one heart, one prayer, is to acknowledge that we are all one. Everything that exists has purpose and is an integral part of the tapestry we call the 'circle of life'.

At this time our focus is on the fossil fuel industry, corporations and people who choose excessive wealth over protecting our environment from their destructive greed. Phillip B Gottfredson's Group stands in support of equality, our right to protect our most fundamental resources, our right to abundant natural food, clean water, clean air, and healing Mother Earth upon which all life depends. This is a public group.

Wisdom Keepers: Wisdom Keepers Group is a circle of kindred spirits who are students, teachers, leaders, and followers of spiritual and sacred life-ways of Native American indigenous cultures. No one person is more important than another. The opinions and comments of every person matters. Allow Honesty, Love, Courage, Truth, Wisdom, Humility, and Respect be the guiding principles in all posts and comments. Members are encouraged to ask questions, make comments, and share your own personal experiences. And so, Wisdom Keepers is a kind of sanctuary where we gather as a community to learn from each other, prayer and meditation. Emphasis on prayer and meditation. This is a private group.

The Black Hawk War; Utah's Forgotten History: THE BLACK HAWK WAR trouble began when Mormon settlers pushed their way into the Great Basin (Utah) in 1847. Chief Wakara of the Timpanogos Nation who are indigenous to Utah, warned LDS Church leader Brigham Young and his followers they were not welcome to settle on their ancestral land. Brigham's all Mormon militia in hand with U.S. Troops would commit some of the most repulsive massacres in American history at Battle Creek Canyon in 1849, Fort Utah in 1850, Mt. Meadows in 1857, Bear River in 1863, Squaw Valley in 1865, and the Circleville Massacre in 1866. .

Our objective is to educate people about the tragic war between Mormon colonists and the Timpanogos Tribe that has been ignored and to a large extent covered-up. This is a public group.




Black Hawk Productions is proud to annouce that our Facebook page the Black Hawk War; Utah's Forgotten History Group has finally begun to take hold. If you have questions or comments about the Utah Black Hawk War our Facebook page is the place to go. Connecting with members of the Timpanogos Tribe living descendants of Arapeen, Wakara, Tabby, Tintic, Mormon pioneers and experts on the Utah Black Hawk War has never been easier. We invite our visitors to join us and become members of our group. In depth conversations, shareing documents, and new discoveries are happening everyday. Please join us on Facebook, its so easy. If you have had a Facebook account for more than 30 days, you are already approved. See you on Facebook!



Mystery Solved!

Kiowa Apache man named Black Hawk.

For many decades people in Utah have believed that this is a photo of a pencil sketch of Antonga Black Hawk. The fact is, it is not! There are no known photos of Antonga Black Hawk. It's always been a mystery where this photo came from and who this Black Hawk is.

This is a photo of a Kiowa Apache man called Black Hawk. This portrait is an Albumen print taken in 1875 by William S. Soule who was the post photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. It has been provided by the Smithsonian collection. By clicking on the photo it is linked to the source. Utah's Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was buried in Spring Lake, Utah in 1870. This photo has no place what-so-ever in Utah's history. We wish to thank David McLaughlin for this information.

This is typical of the confusion that surrounds Utah's Native American history. We are always striving to help correct this history in a good and honest fashion.



January and March have been busy for us. Phillip's new book My Journey to Understand... Black Hawk's Mission of Peace has been our focus. You may have noticed we have removed all our Goggle ads, and request for donations we have limited to just our contact page. We have continued our efforts to freshen up our website content and improve the functionality. Considerable time has been spent improving site navigation.

Though it's still early to say how the book is doing in sales, all indications are exciting. The reviews have all been 5 stars! We do not sell the book on our website, but we have made it easy to purchase it from the publisher Archway Publishing, Amazon, and Barns & Nobel. They are but three out of any number of online sellers nationally who are offering the book for sale and anyone can order it through their favorite bookstore.

Phillip has undergone cataract surgery and and is doing very well. We wish him a speedy recovery!




Historian sheds new light on the Black Hawk War of 1849 to 1873 in new book
Phillip B Gottfredson shares a Timpanogos perspective in ‘My Journey to Understand ... Black Hawk’s Mission of Peace’
PARKER, Ariz. – Phillip B. Gottfredson shares an intimate perspective of the Timpanogos peoples of Utah and the Black Hawk War of 1849 to 1873 in his debut Native American history book titled “My Journey to Understand ... Black Hawk’s Mission of Peace” (published by Archway Publishing).

Some 70,000 Timpanogos Indians — the aboriginal people of Utah — died from violence, starvation, and disease after Mormon colonists stole their land and destroyed their culture over a 21-year timeframe according to the detailed account Gottfredson learned from the Native Americans. Because few people know anything about Timpanogos Indians, who they are, or what they believed in, the author seeks to educate readers about them.

“Native American history is an integral part of this country’s history,” Gottfredson says. “After all is said and done, after the Black Hawk War and all the suffering it caused, I make this one conclusion: It isn’t about the war. It isn’t about religion. It isn’t about owning land and having material wealth. It’s not about power. In the end, it’s about the human condition. There is no such thing as race. Race is man’s invention to create divisions and separations, the building of walls and fences to segregate us from one another, to have power over each other. There is but one race, the human race. It’s about humanity, human equality, aboriginal rights and a sovereign people. It’s about there being one world, one prayer, and one heart. Having compassion toward all our relations.”

About the Author
As a historian Phillip B Gottfredson has spent the past 20 yearsAuthor Phillip B Gottfredson My Journey To Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. researching and writing about the Black Hawk War in Utah while living with various Indian tribes throughout North and South America. He was invited to participate in numerous sacred ceremonies and received council from many tribal elders and leaders, which is unusual among today’s historians. Because Gottfredson is personally involved in Native American culture, his account brings an alternate perspective to a war that has historically been examined from the perspective of Mormon colonizers. For his advocacy for the First Nations people of Utah, the Utah State Division of Indian Affairs awarded him the prestigious Indigenous Day Award.

Five Star Review!

In psychological terms, they say you cannot get mentally healthy until you admit the problem, and are willing to look at all your behavior honestly. This book is an honest look at how native peoples have been and still are treated by an encroaching group who believe they have a higher right to do whatever they want to do, regardless of the consequences in human pain and suffering. We have a hard time imagining that our human history is a checkered one. Mr. Gottfredson has done an amazing job of telling this story with passion and honesty. As you follow him through his journey of discovery, you will be captivated by his experiences. And if you are willing to be honest in your feelings and a real student of human history, you will be rewarded with a greater and more profound understanding of the path we would all do well to emulate on our way to psychological wholeness. (and also a real spiritual awakening) As many have said, this book should be a part of every American high school student's study of American history, for if we could be willing to acknowledge our whole history and see the truth, the truth will set us free. Bravo, Sir !
barely ablemann



The book My Journey to Understand... Black Hawk's Mission of Peace by Phillip B Gottfredson has just been released! Published by Archway from Simon and Shuster, is now available for purchase in bookstores and online. Available in all formats, hardcover, softcover, and digital, we have made it easy for you to get your copy today by simply clicking on this link BOOK.



Chief Walker and Colorow update.

It appears Timpanogos Chief Walker is still being confused with Ute Chief Colorow on the internet. "Chief Walkara (c. 1808 – 1855; also known as Wakara, Wahkara, Chief Walker or Colorow) was a Shoshone leader of the Utah Indians known as the Timpanogo..." - Wikipedia. Colorado Ute Chief Colorow died 1888, Timpanogos Chief Wakara died 1855. This article does clarify that Wakara was Chief of the Timpanogos and that Colorow was Chief of the Ute. Definate progress being made and we are very pleased to see it happen.

The name Walker is white man's spelling. Descendants of Timpanogos Chief Walker spell his name Wakara. The earliest account we have found the writer said his name spelled phonetically would be Yah-Keera. Out of respect for his descendants we always use their version Wakara in all our articles.

Another similar mistake is the name "Jake Arapeen." Mary Meyer who is a direct descendant of Timpanogos Chief Arapeen explained that Jake and Arapeen are two separate people. Jake is the son of Arapeen. Chief Arapeen became the Timpanogos principle leader following Wakara's death in 1855. By 1865 Chief Arapeen made his son Jake the tribes War Chief. And when negotiations fell apart in Manti between John Lowry and Jake, Black Hawk was made War Chief. In that same year of 1865, Arapeen died from smallpox and Tabby became the principal leader of the Timpanogos. Tabby called upon Black Hawk to take the place of Jake.

HAPPY NEW YEAR everyone!!



They Just Don't get it!

We reported back in Oct. 2018 (see below) that articles on the internet are confusing Timpanogos Chief Wakara with Colorado Ute Chief Colorow. Have they corrected their mistake? No! They are still doing it! If you Google Chief Walker Colorow" you will see what we mean.

The Ute Nation is comprised of seven distinctly separate Bands all of whom have their roots in Colorado. The Mouche, Capote, Weeminuche, Tabaquache, Grandriver, Uintah and Yampa are the Bands that comprise the Utes. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Chief Ouray who died Aug 24, 1880, Chief Colorow died 1888, and Chief Ignacio died December 9, 1913. There is no record of these Chiefs being in Utah.

Timpanogos Chief Wakara died in 1855 in Utah. Colorado Chief Chief Colorow died 1888 in Colorado.

Chief Wakara, or Walker as the Mormons call him, was the principal leader of the Timpanogos who are Snake-Shoshone. The Timpanogos were first discovered by Spanish explorer Juan Revera in 1765, and later Dominguez and Escalante in 1776. They describe in their journals having met "the bearded ones" or Eutahs who spoke Shoshone. "Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitza-pun-inchi, Pan-chu-cun-quibiran, and Picu-chi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walker), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, and Grospeen who were known as the "Royal Bloodline." Six of the seven brothers were the uncles of Antonga (Black Hawk) who was the son of Sanpitch.

We also published to the internet September 2018 that the Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and are not related to the Colorado Utes. We posted documentation making it clear that the Colorado Utes were not in Utah until 1881 and where not the principle Tribe Mormon colonists encountered when they came to Utah in 1847, rather it was the Timpanogos Nation. Thus far the facts we have presented have not been disputed, and we have seen many websites correct their stories, but the majority have not. We believe there are several reasons most have not. The documentation we have provided testifies to the fact that Utah's history of the First Nations people is seriously flawed and must be corrected. It appears people would rather believe in lies than embrace the truth. We stand by our documentation and believe it will stand the test of time and hopeful that eventually Utah historians will honor the truth regardless of any unintended consequences it may have.


Phillip B Gottfredson's new book My journey to Understand BLACK HAWK'S MISSION OF PEACE is being published by Archway Publishers from Simon and Schuster and is scheduled to be released in the spring of 2020. Taking 20 years to research and write, Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is a powerful and compelling story of Mr. Gottfredson's extraordinary quest to find the truth regarding the Black Hawk War in Utah while living with Native American people of Utah and throughout the western United States.

Noted Utah artist Carol Pettit Harding was commissioned by Mr. Gottfredson to not only illustrate the book, but Carol felt personally compelled to do a forensic reconstruction of Timpanogos leader Black Hawk. There being no known photos of the notorious leader, Carol devoted to the project spent nearly two months bringing Black Hawk to life at her studio in Pleasant Grove, Utah. Working from a historic photo taken in 1919 when Black Hawk's grave was robbed, the photo of the grave-robber is seen holding the skull of Black Hawk in his hand. The photo was enlarged revealing the details of his skull, and from this enhancement Carol was able to masterfully reconstruct his features.

Carol Harding's reconstruction of Black Hawk is just one of many features of Mr. Gottfredson's book. Phillip introduces to the reader the Timpanogos Nation and the first to do so, according to Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe Mary Meyer. Phillip is the first to have been given access to the tribe's extensive historical records, some thirteen thousand pages filled with the Department of The Interior proving the Timpanogos Nation's peoples were are the original inhabitants of Utah. Mr. Gottfredson gives a detailed account of the Timpanogos from when Spanish explorers Dominguez and Escalante discovered them in 1765, to their personal account of the Black Hawk War, and how the tragedy of the war continues to play out in their lives to present day.

But the book is more than just the history of the war. The book chronicles the 20 years Phillip spent living with the First Nations peoples learning of their religious beliefs and life-ways that Phillip describes as "life changing" as he eventually embraces Native ways as his own. Phillip describes; "Everywhere I went, the message was the same — we are all related having come from the same common source, Mother Earth. All who spoke to me told of the seven sacred teachings: Honesty, Love, Courage, Truth, Wisdom, Humility, and Respect. I traveled north, south, east, and west, and I never found one person I did not like. I never found a single “savage” among them."


We have been on the internet since 2002 and we have conducted many experiments over time. Bottom line is it's great content that attracts visitors and keeps them coming back. We have always strove to bring you the most accurate and up-to-date information on the Black Hawk War in Utah. Even when we have at times wrong we have quickly corrected our mistakes as we are dedicated to the truth. Reporting the truth has not always been kind us.

For example, four years ago when we introduced the Timpanogos Tribe for the first time, and claiming the Utes weren't even in Utah during the time of the Black Hawk War and couldn't have been involved, our traffic plummeted. Though we had the hard facts to back our claim, we lost a good number of followers. Still in spite of the numbers we have persisted in our claim to be true. And recent statistics show our numbers are slowly returning to where they were before we broke the news. However, we realize there are those who have written books ignoring these facts intentionally or unintentionally, they we expect, will fight us and make every effort to discredit our findings to serve their own interests. Fair enough, but we will stand by what we believe to be true until proven otherwise. Four years have gone by and no one has challenged us.

We value and respect all who visit our website. We are aware of the responsibility we have not only to those whose stories we tell, but also to our visitors, and we will always honor that in a good way.


Great news! The book project is moving along and it looks like it will be released in the spring of 2020. It has moved through the copyright phase into the design phase now. Soon it will go to the printing press.

An important step in the process was getting the Timpanogos Nation to give their blessing on the book. Author: Phillip B Gottfredson made two trips to the Uinta Valley Reservation up in north-eastern Utah to spend time with the Timpanogos during the summer. Mary Meyer who is the Chief Executive of the Tribe read the manuscript twice. Phillip then made changes to the story line according to Mary's suggestions ensuring that the Tribe is accurately portrayed. The collaboration between Mary and Phillip is what makes this account unique among all others.

Those who have read the book are deeply moved and become very emotional saying "it is a story that has to be told. Phillip is was very inspired when he wrote this. The twenty years he spent living with Native Americans is in itself amazing, his spiritual experiences he had with the Native people are extraordinary to read about."

We are excited about Phillip book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. We will be announcing the release date soon.


Full funding for the book "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" by Author/Historian Phillip B Gottfredson has been raised. Thanks to several donors from around the United States who by their generosity and extraordinary kindness we are able to meet our obligation to have the book published. The exact release date of the book has not yet been determined. But we are hopeful it will be before years end.

We are very grateful for the tremendous support from many people who have helped us achieve our goal.


Author and Historian and founder of this website Phillip B Gottfredson just signed a book deal with Simon and Schuster/Archway!


My Journey To Understanding,,, BLACK HAWK'S MISSION OF PEACE

We are proud to announce that historian Phillip B Gottfredson has completed his Black Hawk's Mission of peace that has been twenty years in the making. The book is now ready to published.

Phillip recently visited the Timpanogos Nation and spoke with Chief Executive Mary Meyer, who you may know is a direct descendant of Chief Arapeen. Mary read the manuscript and told Phillip she was pleased with the book, and gave Phillip her blessings to have it published. Mary and her brother Perry also gave him a few more personal stories to add to his book, and made some minor changes to the manuscript. Some technical changes at it pertains to Treaties. This is significant as no writers in the past have cared enough to get permission or opinions from the Native people they are writing about.

Publishing a book is expensive. Mr. Gottfredson has set up a Go Fund Me account in hopes of raising $3800 needed to pay for the cost of publication. "I want this to be a nice book, one that the Tribe can give their children and their children for generations to come" said Phillip.

Mr. Gottfredson's goal is to have the book published and on the market in a couple months. If you would like to contribute you can make a donation through Pay Pal by clicking on the 'Donate" button above, or if you prefer please visit our GoFundMe account.




It is important to make a donation in support of Historian Phillip B Gottfredson's ongoing research which helps to keep the Black Hawk War Project going. And so it is also important to thank all those who have donated, we deeply appreciate your generosity!

More good news! Mr. Gottfredson has just completed his book titled "Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" that has been over twenty years in the making. An official announcement will be made soon regarding the book's release, but we are so excited we couldn't wait to let our followers know. While it's still in manuscript form at this time, there is some work to be done before it will be ready for publishing. But, those who have had the privilege of reading some of the manuscript have already placed their orders. Mr. Gottfredson's book chronicles his 20 years of research on the Black Hawk War while living with the descendants of Timpanogos Chiefs Walker (Wakara) Arapeen, Tabby, and Black Hawk, and various Native American Tribes throughout North America. He describes his extraordinary spiritual journey among the Native people as being "forever life changing" filled with intrigue and mystery.

Our official announcement to be made soon!


2018 was a banner year for The Black Hawk War; Utah's Native American history website. We spent hundreds of hours improving the performance side of things, and the results have been staggering. Google reported our visits have increased as much as 1600% over the previous year! That means we are reaching a much broader audience.

Moreover, Mr. Gottfredson added a lot of new material and spent considerable time rewriting old material. Our content is more accurate and in-depth than before. Our addition of the Black Hawk War Timeline page has been a great hit with our followers who are students, teachers, and historians, enabling greater access to all the material we have accumulated over the past 20 years of research.

More importantly we have been consistent in our primary goal being to educate people about the Black Hawk War in Utah from the perspective of Utah's Native American peoples who were most affected by this monumental tragedy in American history. We have through our efforts corrected key aspects of Utah's Black Hawk War history and are seeing other related websites following suit. One example is Wikipedia where we have seen significant changes, most important is the Timpanogos Nation. When we introduced the Timpanogos as having played a major role in Utah's Black Hawk War there was much skepticism among our followers. Because we backed our claim with documentation provided by Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation our claim stood strong against opposing points of view. We are confident our work will continue to stand the test of time and bring a much needed and unique perspective to Utah's history.

We are looking forward to another great year, and a sincere THANK YOU to all our loyal fans!

Update 10/22/2018 It appears Google has heard our complaint and corrected Colorow's photo being labeled as Walker.

Ute Chief ColorowColorow's photo here I have seen many times and in numerous articles mislabeled as Timpanogos Chief Walker or Walkara. This is an insult to both the Timpanogos Nation and to the Ute Nation. Historians also refer to Chief Colorow as Ute, when in fact he was Comanche. He was captured by the Mouche of the Southern Utes, and raised from childhood by the Mouche, Capote, and Tabaquache of the Colorado Ute peoples. Though he was born a Comanche, he lived his life as a Colorado Ute, and eventually became their leader. Colorow never came to Utah, and the Comanche is a branch of the Shoshone. So, Colorow was born a Shoshoni and raised as a Southern Ute. He was the Chief of the Ute Mountain Utes and is buried in Ignacio, Colorado. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Ouray who died Aug 24, 1880, Colorow died 1888, and Chief Ignacio died December 9, 1913. The Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and indigenous to Utah, but no relation to the Utes. Walkara was a leader of the Timpanogos who died in 1855 in Utah. Visit: Timpanogos Nation * Ute Tribe * Ute Mountain Utes *


Research Notice 10/22/2018:

"Uintah Ouray Reservation" Nonexistent

How many times have you heard TV, Radio, Newspapers, and even court documents say or use the term "Uintah Ouray Reservation?" Well, did you know the fact is the Uintah Ouray Reservation is non exist ant.

"The Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is only a constitutional name NOT A RESERVATION and never was a reservation." Black Hawk Productions has recently added a new page to it's website titled "Utah's Timpanogos Are Snake-Shoshoni; No relation to Utes." And on this page Black Hawk War Historian Phillip B Gottfredson talks about the Uintah Ouray Reservation as never being ratified by Congress and therefore does not exist. The following is an excerpt from that page.

"The Northern Ute Tribe of Utah is a federally recognized Tribe. The "NORTHERN UTE TRIBE" wasn't created until 1937, under the constitutional name "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation". The "Ute Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation" is only a constitutional name NOT A RESERVATION and never was a reservation. Congress is the only one that can create a reservation, and there is no congressional act that created any reservation called the " Uintah & Ouray Reservation." The Northern Ute Tribe lives on the Uintah Valley Reservation as does the Timpanogos Tribe.

The Executive Order signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1861 that created the Uintah Valley Reservation does not make any mention of the "Uintah Ouray Reservation" and/or make any reference to the "Utes" or Ute Indians of Colorado or "Confederated Utes of Colorado" what-so-ever. What President Abe Lincoln said was "that the Uintah Valley, in the Territory of Utah, be set apart and reserved for the use and occupancy of Indian Tribes of Utah." Signed by The President Abraham Lincoln Executive Office Oct. 3, 1861, with the Presidents words "Let the reservation be established, as recommended by the Secretary of the Interior." It was then enacted into law on May 5, 1864, by Act of Congress.

In 1886 then-President Chester Arthur by Executive Mansion (same as Executive Order) designated a small strip of land on the Uintah Valley Reservation for the "temporary" use by the Colorado Utes at the Uintah and Ouray Agency to graze their cattle, which is today known as Ouray. President Arthur's Executive Mansion order did not abrogate or diminish the Uintah Valley Reservation. And in a recent 10th District Court ruling July 2017, the court said that the Uintah Valley reservation has never been abrogated or diminished and remains intact."

Why the Uintah Valley Reservation is being called the Uintah Ouray Reservation remains a mystery. Learn more at Utah's Timpanogos Are Snake-Shoshoni; No relation to Utes.



Timpanogos Tribe of Utah On The Internet

By Phillip B Gottfredson - 09/2018

Efforts to help correct Utah's inaccurate Native American history and bring attention to the Timpanogos Nation has begun to take hold on the internet.

Until four years ago, like most people I believed the Black Hawk War was between the Ute Nation and the Mormons. All the histories written said so. Why would we believe any different? That was until four years ago when I got a call from the Timpanogos Tribe's Chief Executive Mary Meyer. Mary respectfully informed me she was intrigued by my website and with all the research I have done. “I have been trying to get a hold of you..” she said, “to tell you that you have the wrong Tribe.”

Needless to say, I went into my defensive mode, after all I had invested more than a decade researching the Black Hawk War, “what do you mean I have the wrong Tribe” I responded. “Haven't you ever heard of the Timpanogos” Mary asked? Puzzled I said, “well... yes, maybe, aren't they Ute?” During that phone conversation Mary Meyer said enough to convince me it was probably a good idea I speak with her in person.

We met at a mutual friends home in Salt Lake, and what was supposed to be a hour meeting turned into four years and one of the greatest highlights in my life. As Mary has patiently educated me on a little known Tribe that history has marginalized. Or, to put it more succinctly, the Mormon church and it's historians have buried under a mountain of half-truths, ambiguities, platitudes, and omissions.

Upon getting acquainted with the Timpanogos peoples, the first thing I offered them was that I wanted to build them a website free of charge. It took a month to build it, and we launched in July of 2014. Since then we have watched it propagate the internet with surprising results. In 2014 a search for 'Timpanogos Indians' would result in hundreds of pages regarding Mount Timpanogos, and everything else associated with Mount Timpanogos, except the Tribe, from whom the mountain gets it's name. That has changed, and the Timpanogos Tribe of a thousand people, finally have a voice.

Of coarse I had to rewrite all 83 pages of my website replacing the word 'Ute' with Timpanogos. And now with two websites on the internet about the Timpanogos, we are seeing the name 'Timpanogos' everywhere. Not only that, many other sites we see are correcting their stories about the Black Hawk War and also replacing 'Ute' with... you guessed it, the Timpanogos Tribe!

Just a few days ago the Tribe updated their news page, and you should take a look at . And while you're there take a look around at their history etc., if you haven't already.

In closing I just want to say, for the past four years I have been spending all my summers with Mary and her people here on the Uinta Valley Reservation. Same as my great-grandfather did. He spent much of his time living with the Timpanogos and during the Black Hawk War. And now I understand why he too loved being with them.




Dedication of the Circleville Massacre Memorial

Circleville Memorial

Dedication of the Circleville Massacre Memorial I would describe as being a fair and accurate depiction of the tragic event of 1866 when 27 Paiute Koosharem men women and children were brutally murdered. Approximately 25 members of the Paiute tribe were present at the dedication along with some 40 or so people comprised of historians from the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, along with towns folk and the press. I was there along with Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, and a direct descendents of Chiefs Arapeen, Walkara, and Tabby. The ceremony lasted about an hour. And following the ceremony there was talk among the Paiute and historians of locating the burial place of the Massacre victims and a possible repatriation of their remains to bring closure to those whose ancestors were involved in the atrocity. (See: Circleville Massacre)


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