TREATIES IN UTAH - Phillip B Gottfredson
There seems to be some confusion about treaties in the State of Utah that is important to understand.
In 2004 I discussed treaties in Utah with Dr. Floyd O'Neil at the University of Utah. O'Neil explained that "no treaties were made between the Indian people of Utah and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)." He explained that 'agreements' were made between the Mormon Church and the indigenous people. "At best, these agreements were divisive to trick the Indians into giving up their land, he said. The Federal Government was the only one with the legal authority to make treaties. These so-called treaties were made in Heber, Mt. Pleasant, Ephraim, Cedar Valley &, etc., but Congress never ratified one.
The Spanish Fork treaty was between Mormon colonists and the Timpanogos Tribe in 1865 at the peak of the Black Hawk War. The treaty would fail ratification by Congress as it bore the signature of Brigham Young. Congress declared, "rather than associate with Brigham Young on such an occasion, they would have the negotiations fail; they would rather the Indians, than the Mormons, would have the land." - Commission of Indian Affairs Annual Report 1865, O.H. Irish (Source: Department of the Interior)
The significance of the Spanish Fork treaty is that it was intended for the Timpanogos Nation and signed by their leaders. None of the seven Tribes of Colorado known today as "Colorado Utes" were named. One exception was the Yampa Ute, who were named, but any claim they may have had was relinquished by them in the Ute Treaty of 1868 in Colorado, which had nothing to do with Utah. Leaving intact the homeland of the Timpanogos Nation. The "Sanpete Utes" as they were referred to in the treaty are not Ute. Sanpete gets its name from Chief Sanpitch, Black Hawk's father, Timpanogos. Historians mistakenly identify Timpanogos with Colorado Tribes. The Timpanogos are Snake-Shoshone and are not enrolled members of the Ute Nation. (Source: Timpanogos Nation, Commission of Indian Affairs Annual Report 1865, O.H. Irish and Department of the Interior.)
See Black Hawk War Treaties for more information.
I understand it gets confusing, I hope my explanation helps to clarify this subject.
Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative
Secretary of the Department of the Interior Debb Haaland has released a stunning Investigative Report on the Indian boarding schools in the U.S. The report comprehensively addresses the facts and consequences of federal Indian boarding school policies—implemented for more than a century and a half—resulting in cultural assimilation and territorial dispossession of Indigenous peoples.
Consisting of 408 federal schools across 37 states, including 21 schools in Alaska and seven schools in Hawaii, we at BlackHawkProductions.com are grateful to Secretary Halland for launching this long-overdue investigation into this tragic time in our history.
We encourage our followers and supporters to visit our Facebook page Black Hawk War; Timpanogos of the Wasatch, for the latest developments, insights, and comments. If you are not already a member of our group - please join our campfire! It's eazy-pezzey!
NEW IMPROVEMENTS FROM BLACKHAWKPRODUCTIONS.COM
Phillip B Gottfredson's Bio & Source Material page has always been popular because there are many resources for those who are researching the Black Hawk War. We have made it even better by adding hotlinks in the PUBLICATIONS section to Amazon, where you can purchase some of the great books we have listed about the Black Hawk War.
We hope you find this added feature convient! :-)
Slate Canyon Earth Day - First People's History with the Timpanogos Nation
Mary Murdock Meyer Chief Executive Timpanogos Nation, and author Phillip B Gottfredson were guest speakers at the annual Slate Canyon Earth Day event held at the mouth of Slate Canyon above Provo, Utah today. Mary spoke about Native teachings and the sacredness of all things. "We are grateful to Kristina Davis, a faculty adjunct in UVU’s Biology department, for inviting us to speak at this event," said Gottfredson. What was suspose to be a half hour speech went over two hours because people were so interested in Native teachings. "Mary and I are so please that people have sincere interest in Utah's Native culture and protecting our enviornment," Mr. Gottfredson added.
It's Time Clean Up Utah's History
FACT: This is NOT Utah's Black Hawk! This is a photo of a Kiowa Apache man called Black Hawk. This portrait is an Albumen print taken in 1875 by William S. Soule who was the post photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. It has been provided by the Smithsonian collection.
For decades, this photo has been published many times on the internet and in numorous books and publications as being Utah's Black Hawk. There are no known photos of Antonga Black Hawk. Utah's Black Hawk died in 1873. HELLO, anyone listening?
Utah's Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was Snake Shoshoni and was buried at Spring Lake, Utah in 1870.
He was not from Oklahoma!
FACT: This is not Utah's Chief Walker. This is a photo of Chief Colorow of the Colorado Ute Nation who died in 1888.
This photo, for over 20 years has been published many times on the internet as being Chief Walker. Chief Wakara was the principal Chief of the Timpanogos, and died in 1855. Did you know, he was born Apache and adopted by the Colorado Utes?
Three things to remember:
1. The Timpanogos are not Ute and never were. They are Snake Shoshone. The Utes are not Shoshone.
2. Colorow was a Chief of the Colorado Utes. He was an Apache.
3. Utah's Black Hawk was born at Spring Lake, Utah circa 1838, died 1873 at Spring Lake. He never was at Fort Sill in Oklahoma. There are no known photos of Utah's Black Hawk.
We hope this will be clear up some misinformation that is on the internet. It's a also a fact that there were 3 or more indigenous people in Utah's history that were named Black Hawk. So we need to appreciate that mistakes are made. Example, for nearly ten years I too believed the Timpanogos and Ute were the same tribe, until I finally met Mary Murdock Meyer Executive Chief of the Timpanogos. And to be frank, it really pissed me off when I learned I basically had to start all over again in my research. Not to mention, I had to re-write some eighty pages on our website. I will always be grateful to Mary for setting me straight though. - Phillip B Gottfredson
The Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation speaks about Utah Lake (Mary Murdock Meyer) Video
Black Hawk Productions' website is a work-in-progress as we continue to bring to our followers an accurate and detailed account of the Utah Black Hawk War.
Black Hawk's biography was first written in around 2005 while I was living in Oregon with the Shoshone. Since then, I have found lots of new and exciting information published in my book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace.
Since the release of my book, our website has undergone extensive revision, as many of you are aware. As our website has grown in popularity, so has the demand for fresh material. Black Hawk's biography, in my opinion, needs a refresh. It will take some time to update it, so please be patient as we go through the process.
Thank you very much for your loyalty.
Phillip B Gottfredson
BLACK HAWK'S REAL NAME Update
by Phillip B Gottfredson
Back in Feb. of 2021 we posted an article about the name Antonga Black Hawk if it was infact his real name. And we promised we would keep you updated on our progress investigating this question.
A decade or more ago, I talked with three knowledgeable Utes, Vinita Taveapont, Loya Arum, and Sylvia Cornpeach. I had tremendous respect for them; sadly, all three have since crossed over. I recorded in my research journal that they agreed that Black Hawk's name was "Noonch." However, I could never find any documentation to support their claim.
Then I met the Timpanogos. MaryMeyer gave a plethora of documents; among them was the Dominguez Escalante journal that said, "Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitza-pun-inchi, Pan-chu-cun-quibiran, and Picu-chi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch." The eight brothers were the uncles of Antonga Black Hawk, who was the son of Sanpitch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walker), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Kanosh, and Grospeen, who were known as the "Royal Bloodline."
Could it be that Vineta, Loya, and Sylvia were right? Black Hawk's grandfather was Moonch, and perhaps he was named after his grandfather. They said "Noonch," only one letter off from Moonch.
I can't find any definitive proof that "Antonga" was his name, period. Meanwhile, the search continues, and we will give you updates as they occur.
In Remembrance of Battle Creek and Fort Utah
February 29, 1849, marks the first of six massacres of the Timpanogos at the hands of Mormon colonists. Young Black Hawk was taken captive as his family was murdered at Battle Creek. Little Chief was wet with tears, and his horse wet with sweat. A year later, on February 9, 1850, a second massacre occurred at Fort Utah when 70 Timpanogos were killed, and their bodies decapitated. The decapitated heads were then sent to Washington and sold for scientific examination.
Please, let's take a moment and remember this tragic event in American history and honor the Timpanogos Tribe, whose only crime was they were "Indian."
- Phillip B Gottfredson
Tabernacle dig yields remains
According to an article published by the Deseret News Paper in 2005 "Construction crews doing seismic retrofitting work on the Salt Lake Tabernacle on Temple Square apparently have unearthed the remains of a Native American in a concrete vault." See article on our Facebook page at: www.facebook.com/groups/UtahBlackHawkWar/
Department Of The Interior to remove derogatory names from 11 Utah sites
According to the Salt Lake Tribune, Deb Haaland has issued two federal orders to remove the term "squaw" from geological features in Utah. Haaland said "Racist terms have no place in our vernacular on our federal lands. Our Nation's lands and waters should be places to celebrate the outdoors and our shared cultural heritage - not to perpetuate the legacies of oppression."
The Tribune points out that the term "squaw" is used as a sexual slur for Native American women."
See article here
The Unsanitized Version of the Utah Black Hawk War
Since 2002 Black Hawk Productions has brought you the unsanitized version of Utah's Black Hawk War, and our work is not complete. Our objective has been to educate people about the unjust and unnecessary devastation it has brought to the Timpanogos Tribe of Utah, dedicated in our efforts to help the Timpanogos Nation find its rightful place in Utah's history.
"Over the many years, I have spent considerable time helping people who have contacted me with essential questions concerning war," said Phillip B Gottfredson, who founded Black Hawk Productions in 1989. "It has been a powerful experience making new friends and listening to their personal stories about their ancestors who were in the war. And no less important the countless indigenous people who gave me a greater understanding of those trying times, I am eternally grateful."
INTERVIEWS FROM 1989 TO PRESENT: Personal Interviews of numerous descendants of early Utah Pioneers; oral histories while living with members of various Native American Tribes throughout North and South America; Western Shoshone, Colorado Utes, Grandriver Ute, Uncompahgre Ute, Yampa Ute, Moache Ute, Wiminuche Ute, Ute Mountain Ute, and Navajo Dine'. Additional interviews with Hopi, Zuni, Pueblo, Apache, Shoshone, Arapaho, Lakota, Silets, Makah, Southern Paiute, Northern Paiute, Yrok, Anishinaabe, Cherokee, Choctaw, Inca, and Mayan of San Pedro Guatemala. Living descendants of Timpanogos Chiefs Walkara, Sowiette, Arapeen, Sanpitch, Ammon, Tobia (Tabby), and Grospeen (all brothers), and Black Hawk (son of Sanpitch), Chief Executive Mary Meyer and Members of the Timpanogos Nation Uintah Valley Reservation;
Will Bagley; Friend & Mentor
Will Bagley author of "Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Moutain Meadows," passed away September 28, 2021.
Will was the first historian I came to be personally acquainted with when I began my research of the Black Hawk War in Utah. I am forever grateful to Will for the many hours we spent discussing Mormon history. Whenever I had questions, he was my go-to historian, for I always knew Will would give me informed and honest answers.
Admired and respected by thousands, he will be greatly missed.
- Phillip B Gottfredson