NOTE: 12/22/2022, all posts for the year 2022 hve been moved to our News Archive. You are welcome to browse our archive by clicking on the News Archive link above.
James Lenard Prichett, a great-grandson of Chief Tabby of the Timpanogos Nation of Utah
Author Phillip B Gottfredson Black Hawk's Mission of Peace
I'm just putting the final touches on my story of Jim Pritchett who is a great-grandson of Timpanogos Chief Tabby. This is going to be a powerful story of Jim Pritchett and the devestating results of settler colonialism in Utah that ruined the lives of three generations of Chief Tabby's descendants. I will publish this story on this website on a new page dedicated to Jim Pritchett.
Here is an excerpt:
John L. Pritchett wrote: "My father's name was John A. Pritchett, (now deseased) and that my mother's name was Mary V. Hambrici Pritchett, (now deseased) both resided in said town Fairview, Utah; that they reared a family of children of their own, consisting of four boys and four girls. In addition to this they took in an infant Indian boy, at the age of six weeks, to rear. This child was born March 22nd, 1884 and was known by the name of Leo Tabby Pritchett."
"My parents reared this child until he was twelve years of age, after which he was turned over to the U.S.Government officials, who took him to the Teller Institute, Grand Junction, Colorado. After remaining there for five years and four months he was transferred to the Indian school in Carlisle, Pennslvania; remaining here for three and a half years, he was returned to Utah, location, Whiterocks, Uintah Indian Reservation, Utah."
I asked Jim, "who was Leo Pritchett? Jim answered, "He was the son of my great-grand father Tabby."
"Jim, do you realise that for three generations now your grandfather, your father, and you have been confused, and conflicted not knowing who your are or where you belong," I said, to which Jim gave me a quick response, "and I want to change that. I want to break that cycle."
Folks, this is a must-read story of Jim Pritchett and what it's like to be the great-grand son of the famous Chief Tabby. I'm really excited to share this, so stay tunned.
Timpanogos Chief Tabby & Great Grandson
Author Phillip B Gottfredson Black Hawk's Mission of Peace
Introducing Jim and Karen Pritchett, Jim is the great-grandson of Timpanogos Chief Tabby. I am just getting better acquainted with Jim and Karen. However, Jim and I spent considerable time talking when he visited Mary Meyer’s home in Ft. Duchesne, where I spent my summers.
Recently, Jim and Karen invited me to live with them in their home in Orem, Utah. It is an honor to sit and talk with Jim and Karen, reminiscing the good ‘ol days. Jim and I went to Provo High School and had much in common growing up in Utah County.
Jim has given me permission to write his story, so you will hear a lot more as we progress.
THANK YOU, JIM AND KAREN PRITCHETT. You are fantastic people!!!
-Phillip B Gottfredson
Phillip B. Gottfredson, author of "My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace", endorses Gary Lee Price's latest sculpture of Timpanogos Chief Wakara Monument, and Gary reciprocates by endorsing Gottfredson's book! "Gary is a damn good friend, and I believe friendships are forever," said Phillip.
Today will go down in history as the legeslature of the state of Utah unaminously voted to install Sculptor Gary Lee Price's 305 foot Statue of Responsibility on the site of the old state prison at the point of the mountain in Utah.
“We used to be a nation of builders and architects, and now we’re a nation of arsonists. We tear apart, we destroy, we tear down, and there’s so little left to inspire us,” said Cox. “I believe Utah is still a state of architects, a state of builders. I still believe that we believe in big things – things that outlive us, things that are bigger than us, things that matter more than just the moment – and I wanted something that would represent that, and this is that!” Utah Governor Spencer Cox (An exerpt from the Governor’s address yesterday at our SoR presentation at the State Capitol.) Nov. 21, 2023
Fireside Chat With Phillip B Gottfredson
The public is invited to a fireside chat with Phillip B Gottfredson, Author of My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. The event will be on November 5th, at 7:pm at the home of Holly Anderson Robbins at 1235 North 250 East Orem, Utah. Phillip will discuss the Black Hawk War in Utah and the sacred lifeways of the Indigenous peoples of Utah. Phillip will also do a book signing. For more information please contact Holly at 801-885-0703. R.S.V.P
STILL MORE TO COME!!!
It's been a fantastic year, moving from Arizona to Utah, getting kicked out of a motel for smoking in the bathroom, meeting new and awesome friends, book signings at two festivals, and all the support for the Black Hawk War Project. Most important is all the public recognition the Timpanogos Nation is getting now; to see the smiles on their faces and the hope in their eyes goes beyond words to describe. And it's just the beginning!
Renowned sculptor Gary Lee Price is about to make the first bronze casting of Timpanogos Chief Wakara in his Springville foundry. This, my friends, is a historic moment in the lives of the Timpanogos. Since the Timpanogos were forced to leave their home in 1878, they were finally given the recognition they deserved. And this, too, is just the beginning.
As grateful as we all are, much work still needs to be done. And to be perfectly honest, we stand on the shoulders of many people who helped us along the way. Donations support a lot. Thank you very much for that!! And our book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is selling very well now, still 5 star reviews three years in the running! WOW!! Grateful for that as we continue to get the story out to the public. Thank you!!
Phillip B Gottfredson
Meeting Sculptor Gary Lee Price
I spent a delightful afternoon with my old friend Gary Lee Price at his studio/foundry in Springville, Utah. Not only is Gary a master sculptor but he is the author of Devine Turbulence #1 International Best Seller. Gary has bought eleven copies of my book My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace as gifts to his many friends. I am truly grateful and honored to know Gary.
In the above photo is a seven foot statue of Timpanogos Chief Wakara, better known as Chief Walker. More information on that project when the time is right.
Thank you Gary Price and all the best!!
Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival
It was exciting to see and meet many members of the Timpanogos Nation at the second annual Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival at The Orchard University Mall in Orem, Utah. There were hoop dancers, Tribal speakers, and drummers. Chief of Staff for Utah's Attorney General RIC CANTRELL is seen in the above photo speaking with the author of My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, Phillip B Gottfredson, at the Timpanogos Tribes booth. "The time is long overdue to recognise the Timpanogos Nation as the original inhabitants of Utah," said Phillip.
Tribal Council member Perry Murdock and Julian Reed Tribal members gave powerful speeches and sang sacred prayer songs. James Flaming Eagle Mooney, gave the opening and closing prayers honoring Mary Murdock Meyer, Executive Chief of the Timpanogos Nation.
"A heartfelt thanks to Ed Conder, Gary Lee Price, and Leesa Price for their support and helping us. THANK YOU!!" - Phillip Gottfredson
Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival
September 16, 2023 | 3:00-6:00 PM
Come to the 2nd annual Timpanogos Nation Cultural Festival in The Orchard at University Place.
Immerse yourself in captivating performances (schedule coming soon), authentic artistry and yummy Frybread.
There will also be yard games and a FREE dreamcatcher craft for kids (while supplies last).
Stop by the Timpanogos Nation and the Runa Arts booths for authentic Native American items for sale.
Runa Arts is also located inside the shopping center by Dillard’s.
Meet Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe, and Author Phillip B Gottfredson in person. Mary & Phillip will be signing the book My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, which will be available for purchase. Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is a history of the Tribe, Pleasant Grove, and the Black Hawk War of Utah and was written in collaboration with the Timpanogos Tribe.
PLEASANT GROVE HERITAGE FESTIVAL
Timpanogos Tribe Culture Display
Park in Pleasant Grove, Utah, on Monday, September 11, 2023 ~ 5pm until dark TODAY!!
"A new feature of Heritage Festival in 2023 is a cultural display by the Timpanogos Tribe. Honoring the original inhabitants of the ground now occupied by Pleasant Grove."
Meet Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Tribe, and Author Phillip B Gottfredson in person. Mary & Phillip will be signing the book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, which will be available for purchase. Black Hawk's Mission of Peace is a history of the Tribe, Pleasant Grove, and the Black Hawk War of Utah and was written in collaboration with the Timpanogos Tribe.
Renowned sculptor Gary Lee Price's clay sculpture of Timpanogos Chief Wakara, better known as Chief Walker, will be on display for the first time. Sometime soon, Gary will cast in bronze a 30-foot version of Wakara. The exact location for the final version is still being decided, but it will be somewhere in Utah County.
Be there, or be square :-)
Congressional Acts Governing First Nations There was a series of congressional acts designed to diminish tribal lands, or reservations, the Dawes Allotment Act 1887, the Reorganization Act 1934, the Termination Act 1953, Then came the boarding schools and the LDS Church Indian placement program 1954. The Self Determination Act 1970, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1978.
Utah Chief Antonga Black Hawk (1837-1870)
NOTE: For clarification, the were three or more "Black Hawk's" in Utah history. When referring to the Timpanogos Chief I use the name "Antonga Black Hawk."
Today the Ute Tribe claims that Antonga Black Hawk is their ancestor and that he was not Timpanogos but Ute. According to the 1885 Indian Census Roll of the Uintah Ute of the Uintah Valley Reservation, the only Black Hawk born into the Mountain family was in 1851. And it shall also be noted that the repatriation documents clearly state that Antonga Black Hawk was a Timpanogos Indian.
The Utes Black Hawk couldn't have been at Battle Creek in 1848 and the Fort Utah massacre in 1850. He could not have led Utes into battle in the Black Hawk War between 1865-1870. The Utes were brought to Utah under the Congressional Act of 1880, following the death of their agent Nathan Meeker at the Whiteriver Agency in Colorado. See Utah Black Hawk War; Timpanogos Biography
Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was born in 1837 and was the son of Sanpitch, who was the brother of Timpanogos leaders Wakara, Arapean, Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Kanosh, and Grospeen, who was known as the "Royal Bloodline." For more information, visit the Timpanogos Nations' official website: Timpanogos Nations's official website.
May I also add, when I was closely working with the Utes in 2005 to 2009, I would ask them who Chief Wakara was. And Chiefs Tabby, Arapean, Sanpitch and others. They would tell me "they were renegade Indians, not our people." But today they are now claiming them as their chiefs. Colorado Ute Chiefs were Ouray, who died August 24, 1880, Colorow died 1888, and Ignacio died December 9, 1913. There is no record of these Chiefs being in Utah or taking part in the Black Hawk War.
An Open Appology
During my routine review of the content on our website, I came across the following paragraph I wrote back in 2017:
The Fremont Indians; Fact or Fiction? It is not uncommon for the 'scholars' of Utah to create fallacious names for Indian Bands and Tribes or confuse one for the other. Here is an excellent example of confusion. Utah has a long record of inaccurate and fabricated Native American history. For example, let us take the Fremont Indians. There never was any tribe called the Fremont, a name derived from an early explorer named John Fremont who in 1843 tripped over some Indian artifact that no archeologist could attribute to any particular Tribe. So in their typical disrespectful 'devil-may-care' fashion toward indigenous peoples, they fabricate one calling it the "Fremont Indians." We can only imagine the confusion this will cause later on down the road for researchers, readers, and historians alike.
I have rewritten this paragraph to read:
The Fremont Indians; Fact or Fiction? Well, yes, and no. The so-called "Fremont Indians" refers to a Native American culture that existed in what is now the western United States, primarily in present-day Utah and surrounding areas. "Fremont" comes from the Fremont River, named after John Charles Fremont, an explorer who surveyed the region in the 1840s. John C. Frémont, also known as "The Pathfinder," was an actual historical figure and an explorer of the American West in the 19th century. He was born on January 21, 1813, in Savannah, Georgia, and died in New York City on July 13, 1890.
The Fremont River originates in the Fish Lake Plateau. It flows southeastward through the Capitol Reef National Park before eventually joining the Muddy River. The so-called Fremont lived in the region from approximately 400 to 1300 CE.
Beginning in the 1920s, archaeologists started the study of artifacts found along the Fremont River that they couldn't attribute to any known Tribe then, so they named them "Fremont." They are a Tribe indigenous to Utah, so they're given a French name by non-Native people? This a classic example of how disinformation over time becomes fact. We can only imagine the confusion this fictitious name will cause later on down the road for researchers, readers, and historians alike.
The Power of Intention
writer Phillip B Gottfredson author Black Hawk's Mission of Peace
It is with great passion and an unwavering dedication to the truth that I address you today. Over thirty years ago, my journey into the depths of the Black Hawk War in Utah began, ignited by the powerful words of my great-grandfather's book, "Indian Depredations in Utah," published in 1919. Little did I know that this path would lead me to a profound connection with the Timpanogos Tribe.
During the years of my research, I uncovered a hidden tale that has been shrouded in silence for far too long. The Timpanogos Tribe, brave and resilient, has carried the weight of their untold story for 160 years. While the pages of history were being rewritten by those who sought to romanticize the Mormon colonization of the Great Basin, the Timpanogos were unjustly erased, their rightful place stolen from them.
But now, the winds of change are blowing. A spark was ignited by releasing "My Journey To Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace" in 2019. Last summer, the Timpanogos began to rise, capturing the attention of historians, state legislators, anthropologists, and the general public's hearts. Their story, once silenced, now echoes far and wide.
To you, our steadfast followers, I extend my deepest gratitude. Your unwavering support has fortified our resolve in this noble pursuit. We have fought tirelessly, pushing against the currents of indifference and erasure. We have forged a path where none existed, shedding light on the dark corners of history.
Today, I stand in awe of the Timpanogos Tribe. Their courage, wisdom, and resilience have brought them to the forefront. Their long-suppressed voice has found resonance, and their platform grows stronger with each passing day.
There is still much ground to cover, much truth to unearth. But be assured we remain committed to our shared cause. We will continue to navigate this arduous journey, hand in hand with the Timpanogos, and we vow to keep you informed every step of the way.
Together, we have embarked on a mission that transcends the boundaries of time and injustice. We have the power to rewrite history, to give voice to the silenced, and to restore the stolen dignity of the Timpanogos Tribe. Let us seize this moment, for it is through unity and unwavering determination that we shall create a future where truth prevails.
With heartfelt gratitude and unyielding hope,
Phillip B Gottfredson
Open Letter From Phillip B Gottfredson
Let me update you on what's been happening since moving back to Utah after 25 years. It has really been a challenge in many ways. The population has grown tremendously here. Towns have become bustling cities. Prices have skyrocketed. All the once fertile and productive farmlands are paved with concrete and asphalt. New subdivisions are crammed with quickly built homes and apartment complexes that all look the same, only a few feet apart. Every major retail chain is here and repeated the same from city to city. Developers have a cookie-cutter mentality and no imagination whatsoever. It's monotonous and boring. Above it all is the majestic snow-capped Wasatch mountains, the only familiar remnants of what was once a paradise for Indigenous people who called it their home.
My house is on the foothills with a panoramic view of Utah Valley and Utah Lake. Deer pass through the neighborhood, often looking for food and shelter. No longer able to make their way to the nearby lake because of fenced properties and traffic-clogged roads and freeways, they look worn and weary from doging the dangers and noise of a ruthless sprawling city. Frightened by the very sight of a human being, they dive into small patches of untouched land for safety and sanctuary, where it's only a matter of time before that will disappear too.
For me, it's a bag of mixed emotions. And like the deer, I, too, struggle to find a safe haven in what was once my home.
I awakened at 7am for a doctor's appointment at 9:20am this morning. I had waited over a month to see him. I drove 30 miles to the doctor's office and through rush-hour traffic. I arrived 13 minutes late and was told I would have to reschedule my appointment for being late. I thought of all the times I had to wait in the doctor's office 20, 30, an hour past my appointed time. "No," I said, "forget it! I wont be back."
I first posted this article back in March 2019. It may seem insignificant to some people, but it is disrespectful to the living descendants of Timpanogos War Chief Black Hawk.
It's Time to Clean Up Utah's History
Fact: This is NOT Utah's Black Hawk! This portrait is an Albumen print taken in 1875 by William S. Soule, the post photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. The photo is of a Kiowa Apache man called Black Hawk. The Smithsonian Collection has provided it.
This photo has been published online and in numerous books and publications as Utah's Black Hawk for decades. There are no known photos of Antonga Black Hawk. Utah's Black Hawk died in 1870.
Utah's Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was Timpanogos Snake Shoshoni, not Apache or Ute. He was buried at Spring Lake, Utah, in 1870, and he was not from Oklahoma! See Black Hawk's burial for more information.
The Vatican repudiates 'Doctrine of Discovery,' which was used to justify colonialism
Quoting from NPR news article 03/30/2023 by Bill Chapple
Nearly 500 years after papal decrees were used to rationalize Europe's colonial conquests, the Vatican repudiated those decrees on Thursday, saying the "Doctrine of Discovery" that was used to justify snuffing out Indigenous people's culture and livelihoods is not part of the Catholic faith.
The doctrine was invoked as a legal and religious standing by Europeans who "discovered" new lands and violently seized it from people who had been living there for generations. It has been cited in different arenas for centuries, including by the U.S. Supreme Court — as early as 1823 and as recently as 2005.
"It renounces the mindset of cultural or racial superiority which allowed for that objectification or subjection of people, and strongly condemns any attitudes or actions that threaten or damage the dignity of the human person." See NPR news article 03/30/2023 by Bill Chapple
For Decades First Nations have insisted the Catholic Church condemn the Doctrine of Discovery and admit to the destruction it brought to indigenous people worldwide. This historical moment is essential to reconciliation and justice for Native Nations.
Spirit of the East, Bring Us Our New Dawning
Transitioning from Arizona to Utah over the past seven months has been a worthwhile and sometimes tricky challenge. Over two decades ago, my brother and I left our home in Utah and moved to Oregon to live with a Shoshone family to begin our quest to learn First Nation peoples' history and sacred lifeways. We sold everything and left with a trailer of personal belongings, two dogs, two cars, and a few thousand dollars. More importantly, we promised each other that we would accept whomever and whatever stood before us without judgment or expectations. It was a leap of faith, believing it was something we had to do and for reasons that would become clear as years passed. My brother David crossed over into the spirit world in 2015. He told me to continue our work and said, "it's not about us, you and me, but all of us."
It is good to be back home again. I live in Pleasant Grove, Utah, only a short distance from Battle Creek, where the Black Hawk War began in 1849 between the Timpanogos Tribe and Mormon Militia which I see as serendipitous that I should find a place to call home here in Pleasant Grove I believe was meant to be, but unplanned. And I am grateful for my friends who have given me tremendous, often unexpected, and overwhelming generosity in the transition.
The Timpanogos Tribe collaborated with me in writing the book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, released in 2019 by Archway Publishing from Simon Schuster. Before this time, virtually no one knew anything about the Timpanogos in Utah. It has played an essential role in giving the Timpanogos a voice. Over the past year, the Tribe, notably Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos, has been very busy giving talks to groups and major organizations throughout Utah, bringing much-needed attention to the Tribe and its history. And that is why I moved back here to further assist the Tribe in any way they see fit to further educate the citizens of Utah about the Black Hawk War and the Timpanogos Nation.
But we can’t do all that needs to be done alone. We need your continued help as well. And the best way for our allies to help is to continue efforts to understand the devastating consequences that Settler Colonialism brought to the Timpanogos Nation. Knowledge is power, and the more knowledge you have the greater your influence in bringing much-needed healing to those who are suffering from generational trauma because of the atrocities of the Black Hawk War. Being well-informed when engaging in conversations and discussions about the Black Hawk War and the Timpanogos brings change.
Everything you need to stay informed is at your fingertips. Two informative websites, BlackHawkProductions.com, TimpanogosTribe.com, the book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, and direct access to Mary Meyer and the Timpanogos Tribe, and myself, Phillip B Gottfredson.
The following is our updated contact information:
Mary Meyer and the Timpanogos Nation
Mail: P.O. Box 327 Ft. Duchesne, Utah 84026
Phillip B Gottfredson Historian & Author:
Mail: Phillip B Gottfredson
336 East University PKWY #1127 Orem, Utah 84058
Thank you, everyone, for your continued interest and support.
Phillip B Gottfredson
Did You Know?
When the Civil War ended in 1865, attention turned toward western expansion and the U.S. military to Indian fighting. The United States government called for the extermination of tribes who resisted giving up their land. Highly publicized massacres of Indians brought the attention of philanthropic groups. American humanitarians proposed a new solution to the "Indian problem" by eliminating Indianness through acculturation. Christian reformers argued that if Indians were assimilated, the Indian problem would vanish. In the 1860s, the U.S. adopted a Peace Policy, gradually shifting toward a more peaceful approach, and genocide of Native Americans was officially discouraged. The Peace Policy meant forcing Native tribes to reservations and boarding house schools to assimilate them into white culture, thus eliminating Native peoples bloodlessly. The intended effect of the Peace Policy was to prevent the rampant slaughter of Native Americans.
Christianization, education, and cultural development became the means to assimilate tribal peoples so that they could be integrated and absorbed by mainstream society. Example, the LDS church converted many of Utah's Native Americans to Mormonism, according to church doctrine, and in so doing, the so-called "loathsome" Indians would become a "white and delightsome people." They would be forgiven of the sins of their forefathers. (Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 5:21-23) According to church doctrine, the nature of the dark skin was a curse, and the cause was the Lord; the reason that the Lamanites (Indians) "had hardened their hearts against him, (God)," and the punishment was to make them "loathsome" unto God's people who had white skins.
Gratitude from Phillip B Gottfredson
A few days ago, I received an e-mail from Marcus, a young man who explained he had just finished reading my book Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. "It was life-changing," he wrote. He liked it so much that he went out and bought four more books to give his friends as Christmas gifts. If that weren't enough, he made a sizable donation to BlackHawkProductions.com to thank us for all our hard work.
I wanted to share this with all of our supporters because I appreciate people like Marcus for his thoughtfulness and incredible generosity. To all who have helped us through the years, a heartfelt THANK YOU to everyone. We love you!
COLONIALISM VS. SETTLER COLONIALISM
"Settler Colonialism" is a fairly new term we have recently added to the narrative of the Black Hawk War. What is the difference between Settler Colonialism and colonialism? The Oxford dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically."
Settler colonialism is more specific. "Settler colonialism is an ongoing system of power that perpetuates the genocide and repression of indigenous peoples and cultures." According to Global Social Theory, "Settler colonialism is a distinct type of colonialism that functions through the replacement of indigenous populations with an invasive settler society that, over time, develops a distinctive identity and sovereignty." It is the elimination of Native Americans, and the seizure of land and resources in perpetuity.
Over the past month, Phillip B Gottfredson has updated much of the website injecting the term Settler Colonialism to the narrative so people better understand that it is the primary cause of Utah's Black Hawk War. For example, in the opening paragraph of the website he wrote, "Settler colonialism is the primary cause of Utah's Black Hawk War. The war spanned 24 years from when Mormons' arrived in the upper Great Basin in 1847 to the extermination and forced removal of the Timpanogos Nation of the Wasatch to the Uintah Valley Reservation in 1871."
Another example, "Religion had a significant role in the Black Hawk War in Utah, cultural conflict, political motivation, and legal justification for settler colonization of North America. "Papal authority is the basis for United States power over indigenous peoples," wrote Peter d'Errico, Legal Studies Department, University of Massachusetts/Amherst."