"Only to the white man was nature a wilderness and only to him was the land 'infested' with 'wild' animals and 'savage' people. To us it was tame, Earth was bountiful and we were surrounded with the blessings of the Great Mystery." ~ Black Elk, Lakota
The Black Hawk War spanned some 21 years. Trouble began when Mormon settlers started to colonize of the Great Basin (Utah) in 1847. The Timpanogos Indian Nation forewarned Mormon Church leader Brigham Young and his followers they were not welcome to settle on their ancestral land. Timpanogos War Chief Antongua Black Hawk assembled a thousand or more warriors from his communal tribe with support from neighboring allies, among them the Colorado Utes, Apache, Navajo and Kiowa. He commanded a formidable attack that effectively held back Mormon colonization of their most valued homeland in central and southern Utah. Because Black Hawk understood Mormon economics, he managed to undermine their economy by flooding the market with 'Mormon beef' causing cattle markets to collapse, and the abandonment of some 70 Mormon villages. In just 14 months he got the better of his tormentors and nearly succeeded in driving the Mormons out of Utah. This resulted in a bloody revenge by the Mormons who unleashed a terrible violence that devastated the Timpanogos Nation.
Following Black Hawk's death in 1870, in 1919 members of the Mormon church exhumed the mortal remains of Black Hawk and put them on public display in a window of a hardware store for amusement.
Mormon polygamist leader Brigham Young spent over one and a half million dollars of church funds to "exterminate" the "Indians of Utah" resulting in six bloody massacres, and some 150 deadly confrontations that took place between 1849 and 1870. Over two hundred whites and nine hundred American Indians were killed. This does NOT include the untold thousands of Timpanogos who died from starvation and disease wrought by Mormon settlement. Of the some seventy-thousand Timpanogos living along the Wasatch at the time, government agency records reveal that Utah Indian population decreased by a staggering 90% leaving just 2300 Timpanogos alive when they were forced onto the Uintah Valley Reservation where 500 more died in the first winter from starvation.
Black Hawk War Historian Phillip B Gottfredson
During the Black Hawk War, Phillip's great-grandfather Peter Gottfredson was a young man, and being a friend of the Timpanogos was invited into the camp of Chief Antongua Black Hawk on numerous occasions. He spent much of his time in the camps of the Timpanogos.
Indigenous Day Award recipient Phillip Gottfredson, like his great-grandfather, has been living with the Timpanogos over the past several years while learning firsthand their recollections of the Black Hawk War. Working with Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, Phillip is the first historian to have been given this honor and have access to the Timpanogos Nation's historical records. A remarkable discovery was made that the Timpanogos and the Ute are two distinctly different Tribes, and that the Timpanogos have been marginalized and left out of Utah's history. Raising serious doubt that the Utes were involved in the Black Hawk War as Utah historians would have us believe. Previously, he spent several years learning from the Ute, Shoshone, Paiute and many more Native American Tribes throughout North and South America.
Phillip was invited to participate in numerous sacred ceremonies and received council from many tribal elders and leaders. This is a unique distinction among today's historians. Because he is personally involved in Native American culture, Phillip gives an unprecedented and intimate perspective into the Timpanogos peoples of Utah who were those most affected by the tragic Black Hawk War. Phillip's synopsis of the Black Hawk War offers much-needed clarity to Utah's Native American history that until now, has been grossly misrepresented and deliberately ignored. Phillip Gottfredson is the Timpanogos Nation's historian.
In this essay, Mr. Gottfredson introduces the Timpanogos Nation followed by a synopsis of the Black Hawk War from the perspective of the Timpanogos.
Peter Gottfredson Black Hawk War Historian
Author Indian Depredations In Utah
1846 - 1934
The torch has passed from great-grandfather to great-grandson...
Phillip Gottfredson Black Hawk War Historian
Great-grandson of Peter Gottfredson
1945 - to Present
This website has been on the internet since 2002, exploring 23 years of Utah's Native peoples hardship that began at Battle Creek and Fort Utah in the year 1849, and ended in the year 1872.
If you prefer to skip this informative introduction, Phillip Gottfredson is first to publish a detailed time-line of the events of the Utah Black Hawk War. From the time-line page you can navigate this entire website and all the important topics concerning the Utah Black Hack War.
It's a great honor to introduce...
The Timpanogos Nation
The first inhabitants of the Great Basin (Utah)
Black Hawk Memorial Spring Lake, Utah
Mary Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation
Mary is a descendent of Timpanogos Chief Arapeen, Black Hawk's Uncle
by Phillip B Gottfredson
In 2015 I was contacted by a Tribe in Utah that no one has ever talked about... the Timpanogos, who have lived in the Great Basin of Utah long before President Lincoln created the Uintah Valley Reservation in 1861. Great-grandfather Peter often spoke about the Timpanogos, but like others I assumed they were Ute. It was jaw-dropping to learn that the Timpanogos and the Ute are two distinctly different Tribes, and that the Timpanogos have been completely ignored and left out of Utah's history. They are believed by many to be nonexistent. Don't think this to be a small matter reader, this discovery completely changes Utah's history of the Black Hawk War and raises many suspicions and distrust regarding Mormon relations with Utah's Native peoples. I am forever grateful to Mary Meyer and the Timpanogos Nation for sharing their well documented history with me and granting permission to share with you.
Chief Executive Mary Meyer of the Snake-Shoshone Timpanogos Nation, is a direct descendant of Chief Arapeen, and she generously provided me with definitive proof that the Timpanogos are the living descendants of the 'Royal Bloodline' of Chiefs Sanpitch, Wakara, Arapeen, Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, Grospeen and Antongua 'Black Hawk', and other acclaimed leaders in the Black Hawk War. Their lineage documented by birth and marriage records, death certificates, Indian Agency records, treaties, and that they have filed some 13000 pages of historical records with the United States Government going back to 1765. This is information you won't find in mainstream historical accounts. I am genuinely humbled by Mary's help, one of the greatest honors in my life to work with Mary Meyer and the Timpanogos Nation.
Phillip with June, Mary Meyer's Mother
The documents I studied provided definitive proof that the Timpanogos were the first 'Indians of Utah' to inhabit the Great Basin who miraculously survived the Black Hawk War and managed to remain intact. With prayer, extraordinary courage, wisdom, and determination they are still here.
For example, the Timpanogos were first discovered by Spanish explorer Juan Revera in 1765, and later Dominguez and Escalante in 1776. They describe in their journals having met "the bearded ones" or Eutahs who spoke Shoshone. Eu translated means reeds, and Tah means arrow in the Shoshone language. The Eutahs, the journal explains, spoke the language of the Snake-Shoshone and called themselves "Timpanogostzis" an Aztecan Shoshonian word meaning People of the Rock Water Carriers (referring to rock salt), whose leader was Turunianchi. They lived by a lake they called Timpanogos. Dominguez and Escalante called the area El Valle de Nuestra Señora de la Merced de los Timpanogos (translation: The valley of our lady of mercy of the Timpanogos). The lake is known today as Utah Lake. The place is Utah Valley situated in the heart of the state of Utah. The Lagunas, fish eaters, Eutahs, and the bearded ones, the Timpangotzis they are called by all these names. Dominguez and Escalante describe the Timpanogos as a strong, kind and hospitable people.
"Turunianchi the Great" was the leader of the Timpanogostzis, and Cuitza-pun-inchi, Pan-chu-cun-quibiran, and Picu-chi were his brothers. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch. Moonch was the father of Chiefs Sanpitch, Yah-Keera (Walker), Arapeen (father of Jake Arapeen), Tabby, Ammon, Sowiette, and Grospeen who were known as the "Royal Bloodline." Six of the seven brothers were the uncles of Antongua (Black Hawk) who was the son of Sanpitch.
Tribal identity is crucial in our understanding of the Black Hawk War, yet it remains the most overlooked topic causing inaccuracies in our histories leading to baseless conclusions, confusion, and false assumptions. There can be no doubt the Timpanogos Nation were the Native American people that LDS Church leader Brigham Young and his followers first encountered in 1847 and not the Colorado Utes as historians would have us believe. The Colorado Utes were not in Utah until 34 years later in 1881.
It is troubling to me, that for over a century historians who have never cared to consult with Native American Tribes who have a better understanding of their own history. The Ute and Timpanogos live on the same Uinta Valley Reservation in Utah but they are distinctly different Tribes in origin, language, and customs. The Ute are not Shoshone, and are not related to the Timpanogos who are Snakes, a centuries-old band of the Shoshone. The Timpanogos were never in Colorado, they ruled the entire Wasatch. Writers sometimes refer to them as "Timpanogos Ute" which is an oxymoron. You can learn more about the Timpanogos Nation by visiting their website.
There's not enough room on this page to explain in detail how the Ute Tribe ended up in Utah so, I have written a separate detailed account on the Colorado Utes I call the Black Hawk War Timpanogos Ute Oxymoron. And the information I previously posted on this page regarding the Colorado Utes has been moved to the same account.
Cultural customs and traditions of the Timpanogos Nation are important as Tribal identity. Without this valuable insight the history of the Black Hawk War is seriously flawed, and incomplete. We have much to learn from the Native Americans if only we would listen.
For example, since time and memorial Honesty, Love, Courage, Truth, Wisdom, Humility, and Respect are the core beliefs of all Native American Tribes I have had the honor to know from Washington and the Makaw to Guatemala and the Mayan. For Utah's Timpanogos peoples there is no exception. They are a deeply spiritual civilization bound by the sacred traditional teachings of their forefathers.
For the Timpanogos peoples, the war was never about the color of a man's skin, religion, riches or possessions. When the world was created Creator touched it with his hand, and so it is sacred and spiritual. The land is their home, their mother, nourishing all her children. The Land is sacred and spiritual and belongs to all who inhabit it. The Timpanogos see the world as their family. They fought to protect the sacred and their honor. And as stewards of the land, they believed the land belonged to them for eternity.
They follow a strict code of ethics passed down by their ancestors, and as you shall see cannot be ignored or regarded as trivial.
Now that we have a better understanding of who the Timpanogos are, let's look at the Black Hawk War from their perspective.
Spear Point napped by Stewart Meyer elder member of the Timpanogos Nation
The Black Hawk War
A Brief Synopsis
1847 - 1872
by Phillip Gottfredson
"History has to be remembered for whatever happened." - Loya Arrum
"I am a red man. If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man he would have made me so in the first place. He put in your heart certain wishes and plans, in my heart he put other and different desires. Each man is good in his sight. It is not necessary for Eagles to be Crows. We are poor... but we are free. No white man controls our footsteps. If we must die... we die defending our rights." ~ Sitting Bull, Lakota
Just 70 years following the Dominguez and Escalante expedition, trouble began for the Royal Bloods of the Timpanogos on July 24, 1847, when Brigham Young along with a party of 143 Mormons, emerged from the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon on a hill overlooking the northern end of Timpanogos lake, now Salt Lake valley, thus concluding a thousand-mile journey taking 111 days by horseback and covered wagons. Brigham seeing the valley said, “It's enough, this is the right place, drive on.”
When the Mormons arrived in Utah, they entered a land occupied by Tribes of a greater region surrounding Utah such as the Comanche, Blackfoot, Cree, Apache, Arapaho, Kiowa, Washoe, Navajo, and the Colorado Utes. Most significant to our story are the Shoshone tribes of Utah, the Goshute, and the Paiute, who are blood relations of the Snake-Shoshoni Timpanogostzis.
In the following years to come, Mormons would continue to pour in on the land of the Timpanogos at the rate of 3000 a month creating confusion, upsetting the sacred balance of nature, and the natural order by cutting down trees, diverting streams, killing animals, creating chaos among all living things thus setting the stage for a major conflict with the Timpanogos Nation. They only wanted to be left alone, and believed in their sacred duty is to protect the sacred. This conflict Mormons would later label as The Black Hawk War.
Mormon's war with the Timpanogos Nation was not a single incident. Researching the Black Hawk War for some 20 years, I was first to publish there being over 150 bloody confrontations between the Timpanogos Nation and the Mormons during the years of 1849 - 1872. And 41 of those occurred before the year 1865, the date my great-grandfather Peter said the War began, which is one of the many arguments Native people have against Utah's one-sided history. The war may have begun for the Mormons in 1865, but the Timpanogos have not forgotten the previous 16 years when their Chief Wakara was murdered along with hundreds of their ancestors who were brutally massacred at Battle Creek, Fort Utah and Bear River.
In my studies of the Black Hawk War, I wanted to believe that the people committing the atrocities on Utah's Native peoples were wretched people, loathsome people. People who lived out on the fringes of society. People who had gone astray of any moral conscience or human decency. But they were people who, after committing senseless murders would go home after and tend to their farms and sing hymns in church the next day. They were the bishops, councilors, businessmen, and exemplary folks in their communities.
LDS Church Historians say the years leading up to the war were "complex circumstances." Whereas a knowing member of the Timpanogos Tribe put it succinctly when I asked if causes of the war were complex, "What choice were we given? To walk knee deep in the blood of our people, or give up our sacred land and culture and accept white man's ways... it was a matter of what's right... our honor... survival... why is that so complicated to understand?"
It's easy to become confused when there are many different Chiefs in these accounts. First we need to understand the word 'Chief" is a Whiteman's term. In the Native way there were no 'Chiefs' but there were many leaders, and depending on the situation a person was chosen by the community to lead them accordingly. So there were several leaders of the various Bands of the Timpanogos, but, I will use the term 'Chief' since it is established that way. The Timpanogos Nation, during and following the Black Hawk War, had three Principal Chief's who were Wakara, Arapeen, and Tabby during the years 1847 and 1898, and other leaders such as Black Hawk were subordinate to the Principal Chief, Black Hawk was a War Chief. I will use the terms 'Principal Chief' when referring to the Nation's leader, and 'War Chief" for those who lead warriors in battle. (See Tribal leadership roles video)
Continuing our story, the Timpanogos Principal Chief Wakara warned Brigham Young upon arrival, that he and his people were not welcome to settle on the land of his ancestors. Brigham assured Wakara they were only passing through to California, that they needed to spend the winter to rest and continue their journey in the spring. The following is a brief synopsis of the events as they unfolded.
Wakara having compassion for the Mormon's, helped Brigham and his followers survive the first winter of '47 with food and provisions. Wakara's brothers Tabby, Sanpitch, Sowette, Arapeen, Grospean, Ammon, Kanosh, and others made every effort to avoid bloodshed.
When spring came in 1848, Brigham Young had no intention of leaving as he had promised Wakara, and commenced building cabins, barns and fencing off the land. Wakara's patience was wearing thin and again warned Young to leave, and to not build any fort (Fort Utah) on their land near Timpanogos Lake. But by now, hundreds more Mormons had arrived.
As tensions continued to escalate, on February 28, of 1849 Brigham Young falsely accuses a small group of 'Indians' of stealing his horses which led to the senseless killing of a peaceful group of Timpanogos at Pleasant Grove armed with only a rifle and never fired one shot. This is known as the Battle Creek Massacre. A year later February 9, 1850 a second massacre occurs at Fort Utah when 70 Timpanogos were killed, and the severed heads of 50 Tribal leaders and members are hung by their long hair from eves of buildings and stacked in boxes. That alone was enough to start a war. Wakara was outraged, heartbroken, his people were in fear of these strange intruders, and just wanted to be left alone, while his elder brother Sowette argued against violence that would bring harm to the people. And though Sowette had no power to over Wakara, he was the elder, and it is the Native way to respect the elders for their wisdom and council.
Just prior to the massacre at Fort Utah, Mormon apostle George A. Smith, a cousin to Church founder Joseph Smith declared that the indigenous peoples of Utah territory "have no right to their land." And while the LDS Church had no legal basis what-so-ever to remove indigenous peoples from their aboriginal land, and in fact violated the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848. Smith orders the all-Mormon legislature to "extinguish all titles" and get them out of the way and onto reservations because they were judged as being "heathens" and "savages" and so the stage was set for the extermination of the Timpanogos Nation that would follow. George A. Smith was 33 years of age when he initiates the genocide of the Timpanogos Nation.
It followed that on January 31, 1850, Lieutenant General Daniel H. Wells of the all Mormon Nauvoo Legion sent orders to Captain George D. Grant to "exterminate the Timpanogos," known as "Special Order No. 2". Isaac Higbee was the bishop of Fort Utah and he met with the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles at the Fort when they agreed that the only way to keep Fort Utah would be to exterminate the Timpanogos. Source: Utah State Archives, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah Territorial Militia Correspondence, 1849-1863, ST-27, Microfilm reel 1, Document No. 5. Eugene E. Campbell. Establishing Zion
“I say go [and] kill them…" said Brigham Young, "Tell Dimmick Huntington to go and kill them—also Barney Ward—let the women and children live if they behave themselves… We have no peace until the men [are] killed off—never treat the Indian as your equal.” Source: BYC, Microfilm reel 80, box 47, folder 6. Farmer, Jared (2008). On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674027671
The Christian mind-set of superiority began long before Columbus arrived in the Americas, Christian Monarchs during the 12th century had decreed that anyone who did not believe in the God of the Bible, or that Jesus Christ was the true Messiah, was deemed "heathens," "infidels" and "savages". Christians then believed that they were entitled to commit all manner of depredations upon them. Indeed America was founded upon Christian principals; by those who drew their power from Old Testament-inspired Manifest Destiny, saying: "This is the land promised by the Eternal Father to the Faithful, since we are commanded by God in the Holy Scriptures to take it from them, being idolaters, by reason of their idolatry and sin, to put them all to the knife, leaving no living thing save maidens and children, their cities robbed and sacked, their walls and houses leveled to the earth." - Steven T. Newcomb Indigenous Law Institute and author of "Pagans in the Promised Land."
According to LDS church doctrine (Book of Mormon 2 Nephi 5:21-23) the nature of their dark skin was a curse, the cause was the Lord, the reason was because the Lamanites (Native Americans) "had hardened their hearts against him, (God)" and the punishment was to make them "loathsome" unto God's people who had white skins.
In the year 1852, the all Mormon legislature sanctions slavery of not only Blacks, but Indians, stating that a white man need only be in possession of an Indian for that Indian to be enslaved, and this included children.
It's rare that we get to hear the Native peoples version of the story. I want to thank Historian Will Bagley for giving me the following document:
Timpanogos Principal Chief Wakara told interpreter Martenas in 1853, "That he had always been opposed to the whites
set[t]ling on the Indian lands, particularly that portion
which he claims; and on which his band resides and on which
they have resided since his childhood, when they first commenced the
settlement of Salt Lake Valley, was friendly, and promised
them many comforts, and lasting friendship—that they
continued friendly for a short time, until they became
strong in numbers, then their conduct and treatment towards
the Indians changed—they were not only treated unkindly, but
many were much abused and this course has been pursued up to
the present—sometimes they have been treated with much
severity—they have been driven by this population from place
to place—settlements have been made on all their hunting
grounds in the valleys, and the graves of their fathers have
been torn up by the whites. He said he wished to keep the
valley of the San Pete, and desired to leave the valley of
Salt Lake, as he could not live in peace with the whites—but
that the Whites had taken possession of this valley also—and
the Indians were forced to leave their homes, or submit to
the constant abuse of the whites. He said the Gosoke
who formerly lived in the Salt Lake valley had been killed
and driven away, and that now they wished to drive him and
his band away also—he said he had always wished to be
friendly with the whites—but they seemed never to be
satisfied—the Indians had moved time after time, and yet
they could have no peace—that his heart was sick—that his
heart felt very bad. He desired me very earnestly to
communicate the situation of the Indians in this
neighborhood to the Great Father, and ask his protection and friendship—that whatever the great father wished he would do. He said he has always been opposed to the whites
settling on his lands, but the whites were strong and he was
weak, and he could not help it—that if his great father did
not do something to relieve them, he could not tell what
they would do."
On July 18th, 1853 Wakara and his brother Arapeen, at the height of their frustration had seen enough and so led a group of their warriors in an attack on Fort Payson. Fear and anger turn into hate, when a guard at the fort was shot and killed by the name of Alexander Keele. This was one of several attacks that occurred simultaneously throughout the territory. For Wakara and Arapeen had orchestrated all-out war on the Mormon colonists and were determined to drive them off their land.
Putting this into perspective, the Mormon population at this time was approximately 50,000, whereas the Native population may have been about the same.
The Walker War, as it is called, continued for the next two years when Wakara was poisoned to death by the very people he had helped. He was then laid to rest at Meadow, Utah in 1855.
Following Chief Wakara's murder in 1855, Wakara's leadership was passed to his brother Arapeen. Arapeen was now the Principal Chief of the Timpanogos Nation and faced many ongoing encounters with the Mormons and getting on in years by this time, his son Yene-wood, known to the Mormons as "Jake," would continue to lead his fellow warriors as War Chief into battle against the Mormons.
The Mountain Meadows Massacre in 1857 cannot be ignored and having no impact on the Native American population in Utah. Mormons masquerading as Indians savagely slaughter 150 whites and blamed the bloody affair on the Native peoples.
In view of what was happening to Utah's Native population, many Timpanogos took evasive action and scattered in every direction. Some went to Idaho and Wyoming. Those who remained in Utah, most were terrified. Under pressure from Mormon leaders, many Timpanogos joined the church and were baptized. And as Mormons used up all food resources and seized every water hole. Desprate, the Timpanogos had little or no choice but ask the Mormons for food. After all, Brigham Young had from the beginning promised them "lasting friendship" if they would become members of the church. The only promise Brigham kept was that he would exterminate them and take away their land. Eventually circumstances were so bad for the Timpanogos many were afraid to say they belonged to the Tribe. Today, some members of the Timpanogos express fear toward the Mormons should they tell their story. And many Utes have expressed the same fear to me on numerous occasions. This is what experts call "generational trauma."
Then came the massacre at Bear River that occurred January 29, 1863. Five hundred thirty-one Shoshone were slain by the U.S. Army under the command of Colonel Patrick Edward Connor—among them, old men, 90 women, and children. After the slaughter ended, soldiers went through the Indian village raping women and using axes to bash in the heads of women and children who were already dying of wounds. Chief Bear Hunter and sub-Chief Lehi both were killed. The troops burned 75 Indian lodges, took possession of 1,000 bushels of wheat and flour, and 175 Shoshone horses. While the troops cared for their wounded and took their dead back to Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City for burial, hundreds of Indians' bodies were left on the field for the wolves and crows for nearly two years. Brigham Young obliged the federal government’s request by supplying Connor with cavalry troops from the Utah Militia.
In 1865, the Timpanogos Principal Chief Arapeen died from the smallpox epidemic that had spread among the Tribe. The Nation's leadership was then passed to his brother Tabby (Tabiona) who remained in leadership as Principal Chief until his death circa 1898. Meanwhile, the Mormons botched an attempt for peace with the Timpanogos at Manti in 1865, when an argument ensued between a drunken John Lowry and Jake Arapeen. Lowry yanked Jake from his horse beating him severally. Jake dishonored before his warriors resigned his leadership as War Chief to Antongua Black Hawk.
Timpanogos War Chief Black Hawk didn't start the war, he only wanted to restore peace. He didn't want to see his people die, yet people typically lay all the blame on him and Utah's indigenous peoples.
Black Hawk at the young age of 20 had been severally traumatized being present at both massacres of his kin at Battle Creek and Fort Utah as a prisoner of war. Add the murder of his uncle Wakara, and a series of bloody confrontations leading up to the Bear River Massacre where some 400 of Black Hawk's Shoshoni blood relations are brutally slaughtered, Howard R. Driggs commented, "He could never understand why the white men had shot down his people. It put bitterness in his heart; and though he lived for some time with the white people, his mind was ever set on avenging the wrong."
Now War Chief, Black Hawk asks for solidarity and support from surrounding Tribes such as the Colorado Utes, Navajo, Apache, and Comanche to name some, all then agreed it was in their best interest to assist in pushing back on the Mormons under the leadership of Black Hawk. This is the only time members of the Colorado Utes were involved in the Black Hawk War as volunteer warriors subordinate to the War Chief Black Hawk.
Under the leadership of the Nation's Principal Chief Tabby in 1865, Black Hawk at the age of thirty-five for 14 months led a masterful attack against the Mormons and nearly drove them out of Utah. Within a year, Black Hawk was mortally wounded in battle while attempting to rescue a fallen warrior Shi-Nav-Egin (son of the sun), whites called him Whitehorse, as he always rode a white horse. Mormons said that Whitehorse had a "superstitious power over his warriors" suggesting he was perhaps possessed. In truth, Shi-Nav-Egin had survived a near-death experience, and having lived, his people believed he had a great mission yet to accomplish. And being a deeply spiritual person, Shi-Nav-Egin was highly respected within the Tribe. Eventually, and as a consequence of his heroic deed, Black Hawk would die from his wound. Complications from the wound to his stomach didn't heal properly and caused him much suffering, he passed over Sept. 26, 1870.
Utah historian John Alton Peterson describes Black Hawk as "having remarkable vision and capacity. Given the circumstances under which he operated, he put together an imposing war machine and masterminded a sophisticated strategy that suggests he had a keen grasp of the economic, political, and geographic contexts in which he operated. Comparable to Cochise, Sitting Bull, and Geronimo, Black Hawk fostered an extraordinary pan-regional movement that enabled him to operate in an enormous section of the country and establish a three-face war. Black Hawk worked to establish a barrier to white expansion and actually succeeded in collapsing the line of Mormon settlement, causing scores of villages in over a half dozen counties to be abandoned. For almost a decade the tide of white expansion in Utah came to a dead stop and in most of the territory actually receded. Like other defenders of Indian rights, though, Black Hawk found he could not hold his position, and his efforts eventually crumbled."
Timpanogos Principal Chief Tabby
Clearly Brigham Young started the war, and it was Black Hawk and his uncle Tabby who ended the war through peaceful means as you shall see. Account after account shows that Black Hawk and his entire family of renowned leaders were against bloodshed from the beginning. Black Hawk convinced his Uncle it would be better to end the war peacefully. One only needs to look at the Black-Hawk-War-Timeline to see that 1865 was the year the war was at its highest point following 16 years of Mormon's ruthless cruelty resulting in thousands of Indian deaths and loss of land that continued 7 years after 1865.
Notorious Mormon leader Brigham Young spent a staggering 1.5 million dollars in Church funds (equivalent to $30 million today) to "get rid of the Indians" and bills Congress for reimbursement. No wonder Brigham also said, "It's cheaper to feed them than to fight them." A mere drop in the bucket though, when compared to the untold collateral losses suffered by the Native peoples of Utah. And who is there to reimburse them?
Professor Dr. Daniel McCool University of Utah summed it up succinctly: "We took from them almost all their land—the reservations are just a tiny remnant of traditional tribal homelands. We tried to take from them their hunting rights, their fishing rights, the timber on their land. We tried to take from them their water rights. We tried to take from them their culture, their religion, their identity, and perhaps most importantly, we tried to take from them their freedom. And what is so amazing about this whole story is that we failed. We failed after hundreds of years of trying to take everything from American Indians. We failed to do that. They're still here and there's survival; that great saga of survival is one of the great stories of all mankind."
"In those early days, it was at times imperative that harsh measures should be used. We had to do these things, or be run over by them," wrote John Lowry a Black Hawk War veteran. "It was a question of supremacy between the white man and the Indian."
Supreme domination was the standard to which the banner of Christianity was tied that brought total destruction to a vibrant and, thriving Native civilization. And is today celebrated without conscience or regret as... 'The Days of '47 celebration.'
How many lives were lost in the war? Peter Gottfredson's account alone records over 900 Native Americans were killed, and some 200 Mormons. This does not include the untold thousands of Native peoples who died from starvation and disease.
Brigham Young was quoted by the Denver Rocky Mountain Newspaper as saying, "You can get rid of more Indians with a sack of flour, than a keg of powder." Just how many of some 70,000 Indians did he get rid of?
The consequence of the war resulted in an astonishing 90% decrease in Utah's Native population that was noted by Brigham Young and recorded in Indian agency reports, and government census records. Deaths from violence, starvation, and disease over a 23-year period were in the thousands. "I do not suppose there is one in ten, perhaps not one in a hundred, now alive of those who were here when we came. Did we kill them? No, we fed them," ~ Brigham Young.
Black Hawk deserves praise and credit for his two-year "mission of peace." And for being true to his ancestor's teachings. In the Indian way, being a true warrior wasn't about killing the enemy, or being physically superior. A fighter will kill or be killed. As a leader, Black Hawk's first responsibility was spiritual. A warrior will always try to preserve life. That's why Black Hawk always offered up prayers before going into battle, with ceremony and dance. And as a survivor, he made offerings to the enemy's family and was cleansed in holy ceremony. As a warrior, he preferred 'taking coup' to taking a life. Black Hawk put family and tribe above all else. It was not about him, he followed his people's codes and traditions, and helped his people who were starving, often going without himself. It was his nature to be humble, kind, gentle, honest, fair and patient in all affairs. Antongua was a teacher, as were his ancestors before him, he forged the way for others to follow.
“For us, warriors are not what you think of as warriors. The warrior is not someone who fights, because no one has the right to take another life. The warrior, for us, is one who sacrifices himself for the good of others. His task is to take care of the elderly, the defenseless, those who can not provide for themselves, and above all, the children, the future of humanity.” – Sitting Bull
Antongua Black Hawk spent his last days on earth campaigning for peace. Deathly ill from a gunshot wound received a year earlier at Gravely Ford that never healed, he rode by horseback a hundred and eighty miles from Cedar City to Payson visiting every Mormon village along the way. Black Hawk apologized for the pain and suffering he had caused and pleaded for an end to the bloodshed. You don't see Mormon's apologizing for anything. So, it took a greater man to do such a thing. And that's what gets left out of Utah's history. So, if you must judge the Timpanogos, do so by their own standards.
Busting The Myths of The Utah Black Hawk War
Many fallacious stories are told and retold, such as selling children into slavery, or children being buried alive with Timpanogos Chief Wakara when there is no credible evidence to support such an atrocious claim when living descendants of Wakara vigorously dispute these concocted stories. Saying it is a fabrication of the truth and grossly contradicts the traditional core values of the Timpanogos Nation. Its white man who writes these stories, never asking the Native People their opinion. Which brings me to make this point...
What began as a hobby in 1989 researching the Black Hawk War, it wasn't long until I was investing all my time and resources to the project. I struggled to make sense of the Mormons' convoluted view of history, and many books I read over and over again numerous times. The LDS Church has a monopoly on Utah's history. I would dare say damn-near all of it has been written by Mormon authors. It followed that in 2003 I turned to the Native peoples of Utah for answers. And what I found is that celebrated scholars and award-winning authors who write about the Black Hawk War never asked or cared what the Native Americans they study have to say about their work. Nor did they asked how they would analyze, interpret, or if they have their own version of the particular story they are writing about. Oweing to their own ignorance, or failure to study Native culture in depth, virtually every account about Utah's indigenous peoples are biased and based on assumptions, replete with half-truths, ambiguities, platitudes, and omissions. Two Utah historians, John Alton Peterson, author of Utah's Black Hawk War, made a modest attempt consulting with the late Richard Mountain and his Ute family, account found on page 47 of his book. And Will Bagley who at times consulted with Native people when writing articles for the Salt Lake Tribune, and other publications.
Site of the Little Diamond Battle
"Repeat a lie often enough, and it becomes the truth." This is how propagandist creates the illusion of truth. These histories get passed from generation to generation repeating the same mistakes and/or lies that earlier authors and historians have written, whether intentional or unintentional, still, they never ask the Native people for their side of the story. The time has come when Native Americans need to tell their stories and demand they are told accurately.
Forgotten are the thousands of Native American men, women, and innocent children who bled to death on the battlefields of Bear River, Mt. Pleasant, Provo, Manti, or on the shores of Utah Lake. Or those who starved to death for want of food, run off their hunting grounds. Or those who died from measles and smallpox, or poisoned to death their sources of water contaminated with cyanide and strychnine. Or those brutally murdered. 'Old Bishop', a beloved old Indian, was eviscerated, his stomach cavity filled with rocks and thrown in the river, accused of stealing a shirt off a clothesline.
After the war, we see ongoing cultural genocide as relentless attempts made to assimilate Native Americans into the white man's culture and take away their reservations. The Dawes Allotment Act, the Reorganization Act, the Termination Act, the Self Determination Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Then the boarding house schools, or the LDS Church Indian placement program are few of many examples of cultural genocide as native children are taken away, torn from the arms their families and relatives, their languages and traditions stripped away, to be assimilated, but not integrated, into the white man's world. Inspired by the racist slogan of Manifest Destiny "Save the man, kill the Indian." If those children were among the fortunate, who survived after years and years of unimaginable brutality in all its many forms, living in complete isolation from their moms and dads, cousins, uncles, and grandparents, they returned home where they were now strangers among their own people. One elderly Navajo woman showed me the scars in her mouth, she said happened when they washed her tender mouth out with lye soap for speaking her Native language.
We have much to learn from the Native Americans who have occupied Utah's landscape since time and memorial if only we would listen. Some Native American concepts and values differ greatly from mainstream culture. The landscapes of Utah are as sacred today as when the Great Spirit created them. Burial sites, massacre sites, battlefields such as Battle Creek, Bear River, or Circleville where the cries of the wounded and dying can still be heard following the horrors that took place there. And for native peoples of Utah the Timpanogos, Paiute, and Goshute, respect for the dead is as important as respect for the elderly and reverence for life.
While Mormons have been blinded by their own acculturation, they harshly judge the Native peoples as heathens, savages and/or pagans. Whereas, a more accurate description would be they were and are a stoic people who emphasize the value in living virtuously and in harmony with nature. I'll say it again, if you must judge them, do so by their own standards.
As previously stated, since time and memorial Honesty, Love, Courage, Truth, Wisdom, Humility, and Respect have consistently been the core beliefs of all Native American Tribes I have had the honor to speak with. For Utah's Timpanogos there is no exception, they were deeply connected to the land of their ancestors. They were deeply connected and stood in awe of the beauty that surrounded them, the majestic Wasatch mountains, Utah Lake, Timpanogos Mountain, and Provo River. They were deeply connected to the plants in all their endless forms for food or medicinal uses. They were deeply connected to maintaining a harmonious relationship among themselves and their environment, the elk, deer, buffalo, and all living things. Even the rocks were sacred to them. They understood and respected these things as sacred gifts from their Creator. For the Timpanogos peoples, the war was never about riches or possessions, the land is their home, their mother, nourishing all her children, it is sacred, and being sacred belonged to everyone. They fought to protect the sacred, and their honor as a peaceful people.
Native peoples teach us, "Before our white brothers arrived to make us civilized men, we didn't have any kind of prison. Because of this, we had no delinquents. We had no locks nor keys and therefore among us there were no thieves. When someone was so poor that he couldn't afford a horse, a tent or a blanket, he would, in that case, receive it all as a gift. We were too uncivilized to give great importance to private property. We didn't know any kind of money and consequently, the value of a human being was not determined by his wealth. We had no written laws laid down, no lawyers, no politicians, therefore we were not able to cheat and swindle one another. We were really in bad shape before the white men arrived and I don't know how to explain how we were able to manage without these fundamental things that (so they tell us) are so necessary for a civilized society." - Lame Deer
Perhaps the writers of Utah's sanitized history their intentions were never meant for Native Americans of Utah to read, who know better their own history. Perhaps writers are too much in the habit of entertaining readers with flowery rhetoric and folklore, by sugar-coating Indian slavery, or understate the savage and barbarian behavior of Bill Hickman or Dr. James Blake cutting off the heads of Indian corpses at Fort Utah, then selling them to make a few extra bucks. Or making heroes of those who cut the throats of 26 innocent Paiutes at Circleville. Or William E. Croft looting Chief Black Hawk's grave and placing his remains on public display in the window of a hardware store my father remembered so well, and later at Temple Square for decades as amusement. The disturbing image of seeing Black Hawk's remains on display at the age of 12 are still vivid in my mind. Or glorifying unprincipled leaders like John Scott, or James A. Allred, or Colonel George D. Grant. Or exonerating questionable heroics of soldiers in Brigham Young's illegal militia like John Lowry, Niels O. Anderson, Dimmick Huntington, or Brigham's bodyguard and serial killer Porter Rockwell. Or perhaps their intentions are to dehumanize and make a mockery of Utah's native inhabitants. To justify the genocide of Utah's Native Americans and romanticize 'man's inhumanity to man' calling it the "Black Hawk War." Unrighteously placing all blame on the Native peoples of Utah, whose only crime was they being Indian, is an inbred mind-set that has prevailed since the Mormons arrived 177 years ago.
The questions that keep haunting me is why all the inaccuracies and fallacious stories surrounding the Black Hawk War? Who is benefiting by covering up the truth?
This kind of mendacity only alienates and divides people who are seeking truth regardless of what happened and want to heal from the wounds of the past be they Native American or Mormon. Yes, Mormon! Those whose ancestors carried out these atrocities are seeking answers too. I know, for I have spoken with many who have broken down in tears shamed by their ancestor's cruelty.
In closing, I am reminded of what great-grandfather Pete wrote in the preface of his bok in 1919, Indian Depredations in Utah:
"It is a half-century and more since the raids and assaults recorded in this book took place, most of the persons who took active parts in the same have responded to the last earthly call, and what information we get first handed must of necessity to be obtained now or never. I have often quarried; why should those conditions be forgotten, and why has so little interest been taken in keeping memoranda and records of events and conditions of those early and trying times."
Utah Black Hawk War Timpanogos Ute Oxymoron Black Hawk War historians in Utah mistakenly identify the Snake-Shoshone Timpanogostzis Indians as being Colorado Utes. The Utes and Timpanogos are two distinctly different Tribes in origin, language, and customs.
Topics & Stories Important topics, histories, and documents regarding the Black Hawk War in Utah