UTAH BLACK HAWK WAR FACTS 1847 - 1873

Author Phillip B Gottfredson

Phillip B Gottfredson | Author, Black Hawk's Mission of Peace

The following are time-honored facts about the Black Hawk War of Utah and the Timpanogos Indians from 1847 to 1873 from Phillip B Gottfredson's research journal. The data on this page is not in any particular order and is sometimes updated to ensure accuracy. See also Source Material.

Indigenous Day Award recipient Phillip Gottfredson researched the Black Hawk War of Utah for over 20 years. Working with Mary Meyer, Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, Phillip is the first historian to be granted access to the Timpanogos Nation's extensive historical records. Like Peter Gottfredson, his great-grandfather, Phillip has lived with the Timpanogos over the past several years while learning firsthand their recollections of the Black Hawk War.

Historians have long associated the Colorado Utes with the Black Hawk War for being the principal Tribe, which is invalid. The Timpanogos are not enrolled members of the Ute Tribe and never were. For detailed information, see Timpanogos Ute Oxymoron

 

Kiowa Apache man called Black HawkFACT: This is NOT Utah's Black Hawk! This is a photo of a Kiowa Apache called Black Hawk. This portrait is an Albumen print taken in 1875 by William S. Soule who was the post photographer at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. It has been provided by the Smithsonian collection.

This photo has been published many times on the internet as being Utah's Black Hawk. There are no known photos of Antonga Black Hawk. Utah's Black Hawk died in 1870. HELLO, anyone listening?

Utah's Timpanogos Chief Antonga Black Hawk was Snake Shoshoni not Ute, and was buried at Spring Lake, Utah in 1870.

I wish to thank David McLaughlin for this photo and information.

 

Chief Colorow of the Colorado Ute.

FACT: This is not Utah's Chief Walker. This is a photo of Chief Colorow of the Colorado Ute Nation who died in 1888.

This photo, for over 20 years has been published many times on the internet as being Chief Walker. Chief Wakara was the principal Chief of the Timpanogos, and died in 1855.

The Timpanogos are Snake Shoshoni

Origins Of The Shoshoni

The Shoshone were first called the Chichimec (the Dog People) then there was three divisions, the Chichimec became the Nokoni, the Aztec, and Hopi (Moki). The Nokoni became the Shoshoni Nation which split into four bands, the Snake, Bannock, Comanche and Paiute. The Timpanogos descend from the Snake. Early explorers reffered to the Timpanogos as the Eutahs. The term "Eutah" derives from an Arapaho word E-wu-ha-wu-si meaning "people who use grass or bark for their lodges." All Indians living in grass lodges or bark structures would fall into this category. The shortened version Ewuha or Eutah are terms used by early trappers and explorers who traveled the Utah area when referring to the Native peoples they encountered who spoke Snake-Shoshone.

Origins of The Timpanogos Tribe

According to The Dominguez Escalante Journal: Their Expedition Through Colorado Utah Arizona and New Mexico in 1776 , Escalante describes having come in contact with a Native peoples who called themselves "Timpanogostzis" whose leader was Turunianchi, who occupied what is now known as Utah. So it follows when the Mormon pioneers led by Brigham Young arrived in Utah territory in 1847, the Native peoples they first encountered were the Snake-Shoshoni Timpanogos Indian Tribe led by the seven grandsons of Turunianchi Tabby, Wakara, Arapeen, Sanpitch, Grospean, Amman, and Sowiette. Sanpitch was the father of Antonga Black Hawk.

Note: State of Utah has no jurisdiction over the Uintah Valley Reservation, according to Tenth District Court rulings.

Timpanogos History:

Dominguez and Escalante, they were welcomed in and fed, places prepared for them to stay while the runners were sent to bring our leader Turunianchi to meet with them. Turunianchi was at a camp north of us meeting with the other headman of the large Nation which is known today as the Shoshone. He came at the morning light to speak with the "big hats", they smoked, they talked, the "big hats" spoke of their god, and, when they left, as is our custom he sent them with a gift. A painted deer hide depicting the headmen of the Tribe, there were crosses painted on each to indicate we too believed in a higher power. We, as they, were people of prayer. It would be many years before we would once again be visited by a people wanting to share the concept of a higher power. We had met many people calling themselves trappers and traders, with them there would always barter, something our people knew as we had bartered and traded with each other as far back as can be spoken. These men came and went. Only a few choosing to stay and be part of the people. Our lives were untouched, the harmony and balance of being one with the earth remained intact. It was the summer of 1847 when our lives would be changed, a new people would come not like the "big hats" of old. These people would build fences, claim lands and disrupt our culture and way of life. Bringing confusion as they spoke God and peace while sharing sacks of flour laced with broken glass. Destroying us with what appeared to be acts of kindness. As our Timpanogos tribal leaders Kanosh, Tabby, Little Wolf, Wanship, Little Chief, Kone, Blue Shirt, Big Elk, Old Elk, Opecarry, Old Battestie, Tintic, Portservic, Sowiet, Angatewats, Petnick, Walkara, Graspero, Niequia, and Antero extend their welcome to Brigham Young and his followers, they were unaware of the bloodshed that would follow. (Source: Timpanogos)

Early Trappers in Utah

During the years of the 1700's to the early 1800's trappers would all but empty the rivers and streams of Oregon, Idaho and Utah of the beaver population. Literally millions of pounds of pelts would be shipped to Europe making fur merchants wealthy beyond belief. During this time and subsequent years to follow the British, French and Americans would divvy up Indian land, waging war against each other when necessary to gain control.

Advent Of The Horse

The horse was sought after by all the Indian tribes which quickly brought the Timpanogos/Shoshoni Nation into power. They became the pivotal source and supplier of horses to all the other tribes. Once they acquired the gun they were a fierce and proud people.

The Timpanogos Prevail

Timpanogos would emerge victorious having survived wave after wave of Euro-invasions. So when the Mormons arrived in 1847 and settled in the arid Salt Lake valley the valley had long become the crossroads of the west as trappers, explorers and the like passed through on their way to Oregon, and California. But an old medicine chief Wuna Mucca of the Timpanogos had prophesied the coming of the missionaries decades before their arrival. And come they did, "to worship God almighty, to save the heathens from hell, and get rich." Over 90% of their population was destroyed.

Timpanogos Ethics and Communal Structure

Shoshone communities were based upon true democracy. There were no "Chiefs." No one person was above all others. Every individual was respected equally. Even animals and all things Creator created were seen by Native peoples as having a purpose, and each possessing special gifts and talents. When decisions were made within Native communities everyone had to be in agreement before action was taken. Within the communities each family took on particular roles, for example medicine people, warriors, weavers, hunters and gatherers etc. were the responsibility of individual families respectfully.

Elders, who were the old and wise, they had the greatest influence in the community. They were the spokespersons, teachers and keepers of wisdom. And so it was that for non-Indians, as the whiteman encountered Indian peoples they were often confused by Indian ways. At times white's would assume an individual who spoke on behalf of a tribe was the "Chief." Leadership in Native communities was situational. Individuals were asked by the tribe to lead them according to the situation and the persons experience and ability. To this day Indian tribes do not have "Chiefs", they have Councils and Committees. And so it follows that as we read the histories we see large numbers of "chiefs" and "sub-Chiefs", and so it is that one-sided accounts can be very confusing and misleading. (See American Indian Protocols)

Choosing a Leader: According the Shoshone I have met with and had long conversations about how leaders were chosen, never is a leader self appointed. The process begins at birth essentially. Being born into a specific bloodline of leaders helps but is not always a guarantee of leadership. Children who show attributes of a leader are groomed to become one. However, their communities being democratic have the ultimate say. A leader must have proven to the community over time that they have the skills, talent, and are exemplary individuals of the communities sacred and traditional beliefs.

Depending on the situation where a leader is needed, a worthy person is picked and asked if they would accept the communities request to lead them. If that individual agrees then he is recogized by all as their leader for that specific situation. And when the job is complete then that chosen person again takes his place among his people as one of them, his leadership role completed.

When problems arise within the community, the community comes together and the problem is discussed. Ideally they all would sit in a circle as equals, and often they may have a Talking Stick, or some object of sacred importance that is held in the hand of the person speaking. While the person with the Talking Stick is speaking, no one else is allowed to speak or interrupt until that person is done and hands the Talking Stick to the next person, and so on until everyone has had the opportunity to talk. They continue in this manner until they reach a conclusion when a vote is taken on the matter at hand. If everyone agrees then all proceed accordingly. If one person does not agree then they must continue in their discussion until such time everyone is satisfied and the vote is unanimous.

I participated in several of these circles and it was extraordinary how the method works. Even children were allowed in the discussions and their opinions or suggestions were considered by all as equal. It made me wonder what they were talking about in those old histories when they called the Native people heathens. For it was explained to me these methods of selecting leaders and solving problems are the traditional ways of their ancient ancestors.

Note: Leaders of the Timpanogos nation were chosen by succession. Wakara, Arapeen, Tabby, and Black Hawk all descended from a long line of leaders going back centuries in time. They were the 'royal bloodline’ of the Timpanogos, and all were related to one another. Simply put, one had to be born into the family bloodline to become a leader.

Note: I was told by a Native friend this morning, "the government lies, the Mormons lie, everyone all lie. And my own people are lying now. There is nothing left for us to live for. And that's why so many of my people turn to drugs and alcohol to forget the horrors. And this has been passed down from generation to generation. Our children are forced to move from place to place end up in foster homes or worse taken off the reservation."

Note: Native American History(Black Hawk War) as it has been written by the Mormons is very confusing to read. I am convinced after studying the history for over a decade now there has been a delibrate attempt to confuse the facts. The reason? Afraid of the truth, Money, wealth, and power, secrete combinations? Maybe they just guess at things and never ask Native people.

Wild West: The Legacy of Mountain Meadows By Will Bagley

At dawn on Monday, September 7, 1857, Major John D. Lee of the Nauvoo Legion, Utah’s territorial militia, led a ragtag band of 60 or 70 Latter-day Saints, better known as Mormons, and a few Indian freebooters in an assault on a wagon train from Arkansas.

The emigrants, now known to history as the Fancher Party, were camped at Mountain Meadows, an alpine oasis on the wagon road between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. The party, led by veteran plainsmen familiar with the California Trail and its variants, consisted of a dozen large, prosperous families and their hired hands. The wagon train comprised 18 to 30 wagons pulled by ox and mule teams, plus several hundred cattle and a number of blooded horses the men were driving to California’s Central Valley.

The company included about 140 men, women and children—the women and children outnumbered the able-bodied men 2-to-1. As daylight broke in the remote Utah Territory valley, a volley of gunfire and a shower of arrows ripped into the wagon camp from nearby ravines and hilltops, immediately killing or wounding about a quarter of the adult males. The surviving men of the Fancher Party leveled their lethal long rifles at their hidden, painted attackers and stopped the brief frontal assault in its tracks. The Arkansans pulled their scattered wagons into a circle l and quickly improved their wagon fort, digging a pit to protect the women and children from stray projectiles. Cut off from any source of water and under continual gunfire, the emigrants fended off their assailants for five long, hellish days.

Mountain Meadows Massacre

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

"The militia, officially called the Nauvoo Legion, was composed of southern Utah's Mormon settlers (members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the LDS Church). Intending to leave no witnesses and thus prevent reprisals, the perpetrators killed all the adults and older children—about 120 men, women, and children in total. Seventeen children, all younger than seven, were spared.

Intending to give the appearance of Native American aggression, the militia's plan was to arm some Southern Paiute Native Americans and persuade them to join with a larger party of their own militiamen—disguised as Native Americans—in an attack. The paiute declined. During the militia's first assault on the wagon train the emigrants fought back, and a five-day siege ensued. Eventually fear spread among the militia's leaders that some emigrants had caught sight of white men and had likely discovered the identity of their attackers. As a result militia commander William H. Dame ordered his forces to kill the emigrants.

Following the massacre, the perpetrators hastily buried the victims, leaving the bodies vulnerable to wild animals and the climate. Local families took in the surviving children, and many of the victims' possessions were sold by auction. Investigations, after interruption by the American Civil War, resulted in nine indictments during 1874. Of the men indicted, only John D. Lee was tried in a court of law. After two trials in the Utah Territory, Lee was convicted by a jury, sentenced to death, and executed by a Utah firing squad on March 23, 1877.

Today, historians attribute the massacre to a combination of factors, including war hysteria about possible invasion of Mormon territory and hyperbolic Mormon teachings against outsiders, which were part of the excesses of the Mormon Reformation period. Scholars debate whether senior Mormon leadership, including Brigham Young, directly instigated the massacre or if responsibility lay with the local leaders in southern Utah."

 

JOHN LOWRY STATES CAUSE OF BLACK HAWK WAR

JANUARY 25th 1894

Excerpt from Indian Depredations in Utah by Peter Gottfredson

Indian Depredations in UtahOn January the 25th the Black Hawk War Veterans held their first re-union, at the Reynolds Hall at Springville. There John Lowry gave his personal account of the cause of the Black Hawk War. 

"The occasion of the present reunion, being opportune, in order to correct any erroneous impression that has become widespread as to what precipitated the Black Hawk War, I take this opportunity or means of placing the facts before the world. 

But first let me state that I came here as a pioneer, and took part in the first battle fought with the Indians under the command of Col. John Scott. And, I have in one way or another been associated with almost every Indian trouble in the early history of this region. I served as Indian interpreter for years in Manti and have passed through many close places in dealing with the red man; at times having been surrounded by them I knew that one word, look, or action would have cost me my life in the event I showed fear. A man who betrayed cowardice might be killed without any consideration, but a brave man was always approached with consideration. Among them were some strange traditions and peculiar notions in relation to their spiritual life.

Black Hawk informed me what the Indians were going to do when the snow went off. They would kill the Mormons and eat Mormon beef. I immediately went to my Bishop with the information. He thought, as did many others, that it was just Indian talk and amounted to nothing; but the Indians told me several times what they intended to do and so I went the second time to the Bishop. My story was received by his saying ‘There are not enough of them.’

Shortly after, I learned they were killing cattle. I had some cattle on this range myself, and in my search for them, I found the skull of an ox which I owned. I operated a grist mill at the time, and the Indians would come there for grinding, and I remember it was about the sixth of March that I informed them that I had found the skull of my ox and asked them why they had killed it, as I had always been a friend to them, as had the Mormon people, generally. I talked to them in such a way that they agreed to pay me for the animal which had been killed by fetching me a horse, and they did so the next day. I agreed to meet with them at Manti about the eighth of April and talk the matter over of their killing our cattle. 

Accordingly, the council took place. It appeared the difficulty would be settled amicably, but a certain young Indian present, whose father had died during the winter, continued to halloo and make demonstrations, saying that he would eat Mormon beef and kill Mormons when the snow went off. I told him a time or two to stop and to permit me to finish my talk. Just then someone called out ‘lookout, he is getting his arrows!’ I rode up to him and turned him off his horse, and pulled him to the ground. The bystanders interfered and we separated. I had fully exposed what they intended to do. 

The next day, as our people were out hunting cattle, a man named Peter Ludvigson was killed. I have always taken the position that that talk with the Indians ‘showed their hand.’ I believe they started hostilities sooner than they would have done had not the incident above mentioned occurred. But the trouble would have come just the same. I am confident that many lives were saved, because it put the people on their guard. The chief, Black Hawk, told Charles Whitlock of Ephraim the same thing as had been told me concerning the intention of the Indians. These are the facts as to the starting of the Black Hawk Indian depredations. In those early days it was at times imperative that harsh measures should be used. Hamilton killed an Indian dog, and whipped some Indians too, but that didn't start a war; I threw an Indian out of my house and kicked him off the place, and no war came of it. We had to do these things, or be run over by them. It was a question of supremacy between the white man and the Indian. 

I have patiently born the stigma placed upon me, for I knew the facts, and those who still persist at looking upon me as guilty of precipitating the Black Hawk War I will say this, that I appeal from their decision to a higher court---Our Creator, who will ultimately judge all men.

Signed John Lowry.

Stamped with--- Commissioners of Indian War Records Seal.

Utah Black Hawk War Treaties

There were no treaties made between the Timpanogos and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or the state of Utah. They were only agreements. Only the federal government had the authority to make treaties with the Indian people. - Floyd O'Neil.

Even so, according to Utah history accounts, "treaties" were made. But they were never ratified by the United States Government. Yet the Native people were made to believe they were legal and some honored those agreements, whereas the Church changed and modified those agreements at will.

United States goverment attempted to sign a treaty with the Timpanogos which would have ceded the land to the Mormons. Known as the Spanish Fork Treaty. the signors were all Timpanogos, no Utes. The treaty was never ratified by congress who said "they would prefer the Indians of Utah have the land than the Mormons."

*The question remains where are these treaties or agreements found? Except for the Spanish Fork Treaty I can't find any!

Chief Tabby Story

In the spring of 1867 at Heber City, a Timpanogos was captured after butchering a cow. He expected to be killed but Bishop Murdock told him he would be released if he would carry a personal message to Chief Tabby requesting a meeting to negotiate an end to the long and needless war. After Chief Tabby received Joseph’s message, a government Indian agent tried to meet with Tabby but Tabby said he would only talk with “Old Murdock!”

Black Hawk meets with Indian agent Franklin

The Chief knew what he was doing. Taking upon himself the agony of his people, Black Hawk handed Franklin his knife and would ask him to cut off his hair to symbolically demonstrate his sincerity in wanting peace. To understand what happened here, we need to examine closely the cultural beliefs of the Utah Indian before we can appreciate this powerful gesture. This was no small matter reader, and is well worth the effort to understand for it underscores the humanity and humility of Black Hawk as a leader. Making a personal atonment was common all the way down to south America among the Mayan. Black Hawk is not surrendering, he changing his tactics to ensure the survival of his people. Remarkable person to make such a gesture.

Black Hawk meets with Tabby

1867 August 17th, Black Hawk met with his uncle Chief Tabby, who had made preparations to join his warriors with Black Hawk's men. Tabby had sent the women and children to an area where they would be safe, it was time to settle the score with the Mormons. But Black Hawk convinced his uncle that it would be better to end the war. The odds were clearly against them, to continue would mean certain extermination of their people.

1867 August 19th, hundreds of Northern Timpanogos people accompanied Chief Tabby and his six sub-chiefs went to Heber City. They went directly to Tabby's old friend Joseph Murdock’s home at 115 East 300 North where they camped in his yard and pasture. The following day, August 20, four of Murdock’s five wives who were living in Heber City, and the townsfolk prepared a feast on a lot owned by John Carroll. This lot is located across the street from the Murdock home. A large pit was dug to roast enough beef to feed everyone. Each woman had been asked to bake a dozen loaves of bread. Rows of tables were loaded with corn and whatever the townsfolk could find in their pantries and larders to feed their guests.

The feasting and talk lasted all day. Murdock and Tabby exchanged a few simple gifts. The leaders then went across the street to an upstairs room in Murdock’s home where a peace pipe was smoked and a treaty of friendship was signed. Chief Tabby signed his name and the six sub-chiefs made their marks.

This peace agreement ended the fighting between the settlers in Heber Valley and the Northern Timpanogos people. It was one of the first agreements in a series of peace pacts made between Mormon settlers and Timpanogos leaders that aledgly lead to the eventual end of the Black Hawk War.

The news of Black Hawk's tactical maneuver spread quickly. Brigham Young grasped the moment, and took credit for having reconciled the war through vigilance, and kindness, underscoring his policy “to feed them and not fight them” had paid off. The Rocky Mountain News paper quoted Brigham Young's boasting, "If you want to get rid of the Indians try and civilize them," speaks to Brigham's 'two hearts.' See Brigham's Discourses.)

Black Hawk did not surrender to Brigham Young. Taking upon himself the agony of defeat, and the humiliation of his people, if he surrendered, he surrendered to a higher power, for he knew it was futile and wrong to expose his people to more torment, while fighting a loosing battle. But the Chief's fight for freedom didn't end here. He follows his heart and changes his strategy as he campaigns for peace three more years prior to his death in 1870.

Post Black Hawk War

In many ways the Native people of Utah continue to suffer following the Black Hawk War. They continue to suffer, from limited land-base, scattered and substandard homes sites, intertribal political strife, poverty, poor health, and ineffective educational programs for their children. In 1861 President Lincoln set aside five million acres of land which became known as the Uinta Reservation. The Colorado 10th District Court ruled in a recent case, the Uinta Valley Reservation remains intact.

The Paiute suffered again late in their history, "when, during the 1950s, after decades of failed policies and programs, the U.S. government under President Eisenhower implemented the Relocation/Termination Programs as the official Indian policy of the Federal Government" and as a result their reservation lands where taken from the them.

Native American Indians were not given citizenship status until 1924. In Utah the right to vote was not granted to Utah Indians until in 1990's.

The American Indian Religious Act of 1978 extended the right to Native Indians to protect sacred lands religious practices, Rare film footage taken at a demonstration on the steps of the capital building in Salt Lake reveals blatant opposition to religious freedom in 1983. Native Indians continue to struggle for their rights to this day. (See Congressional Acts)

The Bear River Massacre

The massacre at Bear River (Known as massacre at Boa Ogoi by the Lemhi Shoshone) occurred January 29, 1863. It was the third out of six massacres in Utah, but by far one the worst ever in U.S. history. Over five hundred Shoshoni, innocent of any wrong doing, were slain by Mormon militia and U.S. army commander Colonel Patrick Edward Connor—among them, old men, 90 women and children. After the slaughter ended, soldiers went through the Indian village raping women and using axes to bash in the heads of women and children who were already dying of wounds, "many of the Squaws were killed because they would not submit to lie down and be ravished." Eyewitness William Hull wrote: "Never will I forget the scene, dead bodies were everywhere. I counted eight deep in one place and in several places they were three to five deep; all in all we counted nearly four hundred; two-thirds of this number being women and children. We found two Indian women alive whose thighs had been broken by the bullets. Two little boys and one little girl about three years of age were still living. The little girl was badly wounded, having eight flesh wounds in her body ..."

Chief Bear Hunter and sub-Chief Lemhi both were killed. Mormon troops led by a United States Army Colonel, burned 75 Indian lodges, took possession of 1,000 bushels of wheat and flour, and 175 Shoshone horses. While the troops cared for their wounded and took their dead back to Camp Douglas in Salt Lake City for burial, hundreds of Indians' bodies were left on the field for the wolves and crows for nearly two years. Brigham Young obliged the federal governments request by supplying Connor with cavalry troops from the Utah Militia. Although the Mormon settlers in Cache Valley expressed their gratitude for "the movement of Col. Connor as an intervention of the Almighty" in their behalf, the Bear River Massacre was a brushed-aside-ignored-history in Utah. - John Alton Peterson Utah's Black Hawk War - Rod Miller's Massacre at Bear River

"The Bear River Massacre has been ignored. It was not in the interest of key players—the military and the Mormons—to remember.." - Salt Lake Tribune

The six massacres in Utah resulted in a total of some 766 deaths of Native Americans in Utah.

ANTONGUER aka Antoñgua aka Antonga aka Black Hawk - Historical accounts use the name Antonga, or Antonguer saying that Black Hawk went by this name(s). Names were often spelled phonetically. Accounts also theorize that the name is French and that the name may have been given to Black Hawk by French trappers. I argue the name is Spanish in origin. I have never been able to find the name in the French language.  I believe the name is not French but Spanish. Spelled "Antoñgua." Translation of this name is not available, and it does not exist in the Spanish language, but Antonio and Antonia are common.

How Black Hawk got this name ANTONGA is not known, however my theory is that since the Timpanogos had considerable contact trading with the Mexicans, as they also occupied Utah territory, the name was perhaps given to him superciliously by Mexicans, it may have a slure or slang. Black Hawk was Shoshoni and the name Antonga is not in their language. The name does not exist in the Ute language. It is a mystry.

The exact date of birth of Black Hawk is not known, the best estimation is circa 1838.  Place, Spring Lake, Utah.

*Gunnison Massacre - Deseret News Article Vol. 4 March 30, 1854

*Several articles appeared in the Deseret News regarding the murder of the Gunnison party presenting strong evidence that Indians were not involved but were blamed for the event.

"Our present objective is to call public attention to certain facts connected with the murder of Captain Gunnison and his party, which indicate that it was not the work of the Indians, as we were at first led to believe. We have conversed upon the subject with several old mountaineers, men who have spent a large portion of their lives in the Rocky Mountains, and who are familiar with the Indians of that region; and they have informed us that the facts and circumstances, as stated in the published accounts of the affair, indicate most strongly that it was not the work of the Indians. In the first place, the murder could not have been committed by the Pauvants, the tribe inhabiting the region of country in which it occurred, because Kern, and others of the party, were killed with firearms; and those Indians have no guns, and do not understand their use. The Utahs live remote from the spot where the tragedy was performed, and, besides, they are at peace with all white men, except the Mormons. Beale and Heap passed through the country of the Utahs without molestation of any kind. On the contrary, they were kindly received; game was killed for them; and the Indians informed them that they made war only upon the Mormons who had taken away their lands. Gunnison, also, had passed through the country of the Utahs, and they made no attack upon him. There are others, and still stronger circumstances, which, in the minds of those acquainted with Indian usage, are conclusive of the fact that the murder was not committed by them. Prominent among these, is the fact that the slain were not scalped. -- The scalp is the Indian's trophy. To the Indian warrior it is more valuable than booty. It is the proof of his valor, and confers upon him rank and distinction in his tribe. The accounts say that the bodies were mutilated; that both of Gunnison's arms were cut off; and one of Kern's. This proves that the authors of the deed were not so much hurried to have scalped their victims, if they had chosen to do so; for an arm is more difficult to remove than a scalp. Another circumstance is that notes, surveys, and other papers of the party were carried away. -- Papers are valueless to an Indian. He never takes them away, and usually scatters them upon the ground as useless.

DANITES

"The Danites were a fraternal organization founded by Latter Day Saints in June of 1838, at Far West in Caldwell County, Missouri. During their brief period of formal organization in Missouri, the Danites operated as a vigilante group and took a central role in the events of the Mormon War. The exact nature and scope of the organization, and its connection to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a matter of some dispute among historians.

In June 1838, a group of zealous Mormons began meeting together in Far West under the leadership of Sampson Avard, Jared Carter, and George W. Robinson to discuss the problem of the dissenters. The group organized under the name "The Daughters of Zion," but they soon became known as the "Sons of Dan."

"I knew of many men being killed in Nauvoo by the Danites. It was then the rule that all the enemies of Joseph Smith should be killed, and I know of many a man who was quietly put out of the way by the orders of Joseph and his Apostles while the Church was there. It has always been a well understood doctrine of the church that it was right and praiseworthy to kill every person who spoke evil of the Prophet." - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timpanogos Leaders and Warriors

ARAPEEN - Brother of Walkara, One of the seveen brothers being Tabby, Sanpitch, Arapeen, Grospean, Sowette, Ammon, also grandson of Turunianchi.

CHIEF YENEWOODS- Son of Arapean aka "Jake." He became War-Chief of the Timpanogos when his father passed over from smallpox. Well known by the whites. His father Refused to sign treaty at Manti 1865.

Ammon - (Shiviwits) son of Moonch

ANTERO - member of the Snake Shoshoni Timpanogos, brother of Wakara, Tabby, Grospean, Sanpitch, Sowette, Arapeen. Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.1872

ANGIZEBL- Present during signing of treaty ending the Black Hawk War 1872

CHIEF BEAR HUNTER - Murdered at Bear River Massacre 1863

AUKEWAKETS - Taken prisoner at Manti. VanBruen cut his throat, and held him to the ground until he died .

AUG-A-VOR-UN - Sub Chief of Black Hawk

BATTEST(Battiste)- Was shot point-blank through the head in Tintic' teepee at Cedar Valley. Battest was the brother of Tintic, and BATTISTE (Battest)  Old Elk's brother. Tintic brother to Arapeen. They were camped about a mile from Cedar Fort. 1856 (See: Tintic War)

BLUE SHIRT - Murdered at Battle Creek

*BOQUOBITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

*CARBOORITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

DOCTOR BILL - Died of gun shot wound in self defense. Marysville, 1866.

GRASPERO AKA Grospean, AKA Grousepete Brother to Wakara, Tabby, Sanpitch, Sowette, Arapeen.

*HUNKOOTOOP- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

*JIM - Brother of Mareer- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

*JIMMY KNIGHTS - Shot Captain Gunnison during Gunnison massacre.- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

*KOONANTS - Son of Tom wants - Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

LITTLE CHIEF - Timpenogos Attacked Wanship's band in 1847. It is said he lead Militia to the family of Black Hawk who allegedly stole cattle, which is not true it was his son Little Wolf. Black Hawk was only in his early teens at this time. It was Brigham Young who sounded the alarm his horses had been stolen. He ordered Capt. Scott to take 44 troops and deal with the thieves. Then when it was discovered Young's horses were not stolen, Scott and his men ignored Brigham's orders to return to Salt Lake and attacked and murdered Black Hawk's family. It became known as the Battle Creek Massacre.  

LITTLE WOLF- The son of Little Chief. Timpanogos, it is said he Led the Mormon Militia to the encampment of Kone and Blue shirt which commenced the Battle Creek Massacre. The question remains weather he volunteered or was threatened to tell Capt. Scott where the encampment was.

MOAB- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

NICQUINA

NUNKIBOOLITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

OLD BISHOP - Murdered by Richard A. Ivie, Y. Rufus Stoddard, and Gerome Zabrisky, he was then gutted and the cavity of his body filled with rocks and tossed in the Provo River. It was alleged he had stolen a shirt he was wearing. Historian Will Bagley states the cause was stolen cattle. His name was given him by whites. (See: Fort Utah)

OLD ELK aka (Pareyarts) aka (Big Elk) aka Para-yah, died from wounds at Fort Utah, after he had asked the Mormons for medicine as he was sick with measles, but was thrown out of the fort and refused help. Brother of Tintic, Battest, Arrapeen, Wakara, etc. (See: Fort Utah)

OLD MAREER - Took part in the Gunnison massacre 1853. Died from gun wound in skirmish at Meadow Creek. He had caused a slight wound on the chest of a white by jabbing him with an arrow because the white man was trying to take from Mareer his arrows during a peaceful exchange of gifts.

OLD PETNICH n/a

CHIEF BLACK HAWK Son of Sanpitch

CHIEF KANOSH - (Pahvant) son of Moonch. Went to Washington with Tabby and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.1872... Born 1821, died 1884.

CHIEF KONE - Murdered at Battle Creek (blood relative to Black Hawk) The Name KONE was a name the whites called him, it was not his given name. (see also Chief Roman Nose)

CHIEF LEMHI - Murdered at Bear River Massacre 1863

CHIEF MASHOQUOP Pahvant war Chief Father of  Old Mareer Father killed by white men.

CHIEF MOUNTAIN - aka Kibets wounded at Diamond Fork Battle. 1866. Chief Mountain was a Colorado Ute.

CHIEF PETEETNEET - His son's held prisoner by Captain Hancock as ransom, was told he must sign a treaty before his sons would be released. He signed. Brigham Young then had a house built for him, a ploy to teach other Indians. Close friend of Tintic.

CHIEF ROMAN NOSE - (This was not his Timpanogos name, this is a name the whites called him) Sub Chief of Chief Kone killed in the Battle Creek Massacre. Five Natives killed, no whites, for stealing some cattle. Fought at Fort Utah.

CHIEF SAGWITCH- Escaped murder at Bear River Massacre 1863

Old Uintah circa 1750

CHIEF SAN-PITCH- Father of Black Hawk and Kibets (Mountain) Murdered by George Tucker and Dolph Bennett at Birch Canyon between Fountain Green and Moroni. 1865. Brother of Wakara, Antero, Tabby, Grospean, Arapeen, Wakara, Sowiette, Ammon

CHIEF SOWIETTE - Wanted peace with the whites. Father of TO-QUO-NE (black mountain lion), Brother of Wakara, Sanpitch, Arapeen, Antero, Grospean, Tabby, Ammon.

CHIEF TABIONA (aka Tabby)- Present during signing of treaty of 1868. Went to Washington and spoke with President Grant for help in ending the war.

CHIEF WANSHIP Snake-Shoshone

CHIEF WHITE HARE- Present during signing of treaty of 1872? What treaty? There was never a treaty with the Timpanogos that ended the war.

CHIEF WHITE HORSE - Led attack at Rocky Ford (aka Gravely Ford) near Vermillion, Utah. Two whites killed, one wounded. 1868. Black Hawk was wounded while trying to rescue White Horse.

OPECARRY aka (Stick-In-The-Head) - Murdered at Battle Creek massacre. Timpanogos wanted peace with the whites. He got his name by whites, because he always wore a mahogany stick done up in his hair.

Grospean - (Lemhi) son of moonch

PANACARA Panacara, was shot to death by James A. Ivie. Panacara was a special friend of the white people in that vicinity and was hated by the Utes.

PANTS - Brother of Mashoquop - Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

PEANITCH- Indian guide

PORTSOVIC n/a

SAM aka Toady- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

SANTIK - Murdered at Louder's Spring. - Express rider for Black Hawk

SANPITCH- (Piaute) Principal Timpanogos leader during Black Hawk War, was murdered by Dolf Bennett Father of Black Hawk.

SHEGUMP - Murdered at Louder's Spring. Express rider for Black Hawk.

SHENANAGON - Sub Chief of Black Hawk killed Major Vance and Sergeant Houtz.

STICK IN THE HEAD - See Opecarry above.

SKIPOKE aka "Doctor Jacob"- Assailant at Gunnison Massacre

SQUASH HEAD - Killed himself rather than remain prisoner of Joseph Kelly and Bishop Don C. Johnson. He may have actually been murdered.

TABBY - (Goshute) son of Sanpitch. Brother of Walkara. Tabby was also uncle of Black Hawk. Tabby became principle Chief after Arapean died from smallpox in 1865.

TACKWITCH - Murdered by Dolph Bennett, he cut his throat with a hunting knife.

TINTIC- Sub Chief of the Timpanogos - Brother of Old Elk.

TOMWANTS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

WAHBITS- Alleged assailant at Gunnison Massacre

WAKARA - His grandfather was Turunianchi, and six brothers were Sowiette, Arapeen, Sanpitch, Ammon, Tobia (Tabby), and Grospeen. uncle of Black Hawk. Walkara was born about 1808, and so had been a boy of about seven when his grandfather Sanpete had been murdered by the Spaniards. Wakara is a Shoshoni name means "hawk."

"WILD BILL" HICKMAN"... Hickman was baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1839 by John D. Lee. He later served as a personal bodyguard for Joseph Smith, Jr.. and Brigham Young. Hickman was a member of the Danites. In 1854 Hickman was elected to the Utah Territorial Legislature. He was an important figure in the Utah War (The Black Hawk War used to be called). He torched Fort Bridger and numerous supply trains of the Federal Army. He was a serial killer. (Also see Fort Utah)

Around Sept. 1871, while under arrest for the murder of Richard Yates years earlier, Hickman wrote an autobiography/confession in which he confessed to numerous murders." - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Remembrance of Timpanogos Leaders and Warriors

CHIEF ANTOÑGA (BLACK HAWK) • CHIEF KONE • CHIEF LEHI • CHIEF PETEETNEET • CHIEF POCATELLO • CHIEF SAGWITCH • CHIEF SANPITCH • CHIEF TABBY • CHIEF TINTIC • CHIEF WAKARA • CHIEF WANSHIP • CHIEF TABIONA • CHIEF YENE-WOODS (Jake Arapeen) • WHITE-HORSE (Shi-Nav-Egin) • SOW-E-ETT (nearly starved) • KON-OSH (man of white hair) • TABBY (the sun) • TO-QUO-NE (black mountain lion) • SOW-OK-SOO-BET (arrow feather) • AN-KAR-TEW-ETS (red boy) • SAN-PITCH (bull rush) • KIBETS (mountain) • AM-OOSH AN-KAR-AW-KEG (red rifle) • NAUP-PEADES (foot mother) • PAN-SOOK (otter) • PEAN-UP (big foot) • EAH-LAND (shot to pieces) • NAR-I-ENT (powerful) • QUE-O-LAND (bear) • LITTLE CHIEF • LITTLE WOLF • LITTLE FEREMOTZ • MOAB • OLD BATTISTE • OLD BILL • OLD DOCTOR BILL • OLD ELK  • OLD MAREER • OLD PENNICH • OPECARRY (Stick In The Head) • PAH-VANTS • PANACARA • PANTS • SAM (Toady) • SANTICK • SHEGUMP • SKIPOKE • TOMWANTS • TACKWITCH • SEE-GO-ETT • TOW-ICH • NAR-A-COOTS • TO-A-BITCH • PE-DO • TO-NE-OO • OBER-ICH • SO-NEEP • WILLIAM • KID-IP • KUB-ER-UUP • CHARLEY • OLD JOHN • KAR AN KEG • PEAN UP • EBAH SAND • BNARIENT • KAR TEW ITS • PAMSOOKQUOGAND

The above names I have collected from history records as I came upon them. The spellings are as I found them. All are from the Timpanogos Nation. Names were spelled according to how they sound when spoken. For more First People names click here.

List of "American Indian" battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans:

BATTLE OF ORISKANY (1777) * WYOMING VALLEY MASSACRE (1778) * CHERRY VALLEY MASSACRE (1778) * SULLIVAN EXPEDITION (1779) * BATTLE OF BLUE LICKS (1782) * NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR (1785–1795) * NICKAJACK EXPEDITION (1794) * SABINE EXPEDITION (1806) * WAR OF 1812 (WESTERN THEATRE), WHICH INCLUDED: * TECUMSEH'S WAR (1811-1813) * PEORIA WAR (1813) * CREEK WAR (1813–1814) * SEMINOLE WARS (1812, 1817–1818, 1835–1842, 1855–1858) * ARIKARA WAR (1823) * FEVER RIVER WAR (1827) * LE FÈVRE INDIAN WAR (1827) * BLACK HAWK WAR (1832) * PAWNEE INDIAN TERRITORY CAMPAIGN (1834) * CREEK WAR OF 1836, AKA SECOND CREEK WAR OR CREEK ALABAMA UPRISING (1835-1837) * MISSOURI-IOWA BORDER WAR (1836) * SOUTHWESTERN FRONTIER (SABINE) DISTURBANCES (NO FIGHTING) (1836–1837) * CHEROKEE UPRISING (1836-1838) * OSAGE INDIAN WAR (1837) * CAYUSE WAR (1848–1855) * NAVAJO WARS (1849–1861) O LONG WALK OF THE NAVAJO (1863–1868) * SOUTHWEST INDIAN WARS (1849-1863) * PITT RIVER EXPEDITION (1850) * MARIPOSA WAR (1850–1851) * YUMA EXPEDITION (1851–1852) * UTAH INDIAN WARS (1851-1853) * WALKER WAR (1853) * GRATTAN MASSACRE (1855) * YAKIMA WAR (1855) * SNAKE RIVER WAR (1855) * KLICKITAT WAR (1855) * PUGET SOUND WAR (1855–1856) * ROGUE RIVER WARS (1855–1856) * KLAMATH AND SALMON INDIAN WARS (1855) * TINTIC WAR (1856) * GILA EXPEDITION (1857) * MENDOCINO WAR (1858) * SPOKANE-COEUR D'ALENE-PALOOS WAR (1858) * PECOS EXPEDITION (1859) * ANTELOPE HILLS EXPEDITION (1859) * BEAR RIVER EXPEDITION (1859) * PAIUTE WAR (1860) * KIOWA-COMANCHE WAR (1860) * CHEYENNE CAMPAIGN (1861–1864) * DAKOTA WAR OF 1862 (1862) * BEAR RIVER MASSACRE (1863)* COLORADO WAR (1863–1865) *CIRCLEVILLE MASSACRE (1866) * KIDDER MASSACRE (1867) * SNAKE WAR (1864–1868) * UTAH'S BLACK HAWK WAR (1865–1872) * RED CLOUD'S WAR (1866–1868) * COMANCHE WARS (1867–1875) * BATTLE OF WASHITA RIVER (1868) * MARIAS MASSACRE (1870) * MODOC WAR (1872–1873) * RED RIVER WAR (1874) * APACHE WARS (1873, 1885–1886) * EASTERN NEVADA EXPEDITION (1875) * BLACK HILLS WAR (1876–1877) * NEZ PERCE WAR (1877) * BANNOCK WAR (1878) * CHEYENNE WAR (1878–1879) * SHEEPEATER INDIAN WAR (1879) * WHITE RIVER WAR (1879) * UTE WAR (1879-1880) * GHOST DANCE WAR (1890–1891) * WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE (1890) * BATTLE OF LEECH LAKE (1898) * NEW MEXICO NAVAJO WAR (1913) * COLORADO PAIUTE WAR (1915) * AIM TAKEOVERS (1969 - 75) * SENECA INDIAN NATION STANDOFF AND NEW YORK STATE THRUWAY BLOCKADE (1997)