Utah Black Hawk War; Black Hawk's Mission of Peace

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Easy access menu to our extensive collection of topics & stories about the Utah Black Hawk War & Phillip B Gottfredson's journey living among Native Americans. Organized in chronological order by date and category.

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The Doctrine of Discovery 1493 The following explains the Doctrine of Discovery gave Christians and governments a nefarious legal and moral justification to invade and occupy Native American land.

VIDEO: CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY: by Steve Newcomb Published on Feb. 2, 2016, Steven Newcomb, Author of Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery" addresses the Spotlight of Indigenous Peoples plenary at the 2015 Parliament of the World's Religions in Salt Lake City, Utah on Oct. 19.

Manifest Destiny The 1832 Supreme Court declared the Indian Removal Act unconstitutional, but the damage already caused to First Nations was irreversible. In time, the Doctrine of Discovery would become Manifest Destiny to empower Settler-Colonialism. "With a bible in one hand, and a gun in the other they came to save the heathans from hell... and get rich."

Biographies & Timeline

*Timpanogos Nation Biography A biography of the Timpanogos Nation, and a detailed synopsis of the Utah Black Hawk War from the perspective of the Timpanogos Tribe.

Utah Black Hawk War Timeline : Detailed timeline of "Utah Indian Wars" with the Timpanogos Nation, and Congressional Acts from 1847 to 1978.

Events of the Black Hawk War

1849-50 Battle Creek & Fort Utah Massacres, and the LDS "Extermination Order" on the Timpanogos Nation

1853, Gunnison Massacre

1853 The Walker War Living descendants of Timpanogos Chief Wakara talk about their ancestor in a discussion with Phillip B Gottfredson. They explain "Wakara is misrepresented in Mormon history."

1854 Brigham Young His "Proper Way To Treat The Indians" 


1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre

1863 Bear River Massacre

1863 Chief Little Soldier attacks a platoon of soldiers at Pleasant Grove

1865 Grass Valley Massacre

1865 The Spanish Fork Treaty  (Black Hawk War Treaty)

1866 Circleville Massacre

1866 Chief Sanpitch father of Black Hawk murdered at Birch Creek

1866 Black Hawk Mortally Wounded at Gravely Ford

1866 The Old Peace Treaty Tree

1866 Spanish Fork Diamond Creek Battle Because there are conflicting historical accounts regarding the Diamond Creek Battle, historian Phillip B Gottfredson spent considerable time researching on site where the battle took place to bring clarity to this important event.

1866 Chief Sowiette admonished his brothers not to fight

1870 The Death Of Antonga Black Hawk

1873 MEMORIAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF UTAH "Memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Utah" was prepared by the Legislature of Utah in 1873 and sent to the United States Congress. It is a bill asking Congress for reimbursement of over one-million dollars in expenses incurred by Brigham Young's private militia and the Nauvoo Legion, to exterminate the Indigenous population in Utah.

Post War Period

1919 Black Hawk's Gravesite Robbed

1996 Repatriation Of Chief Black Hawk's Remains The human remains and associated objects were accessions by the Museum of Latter-Day Saints Church History in 1919. At that time, a local physician attempted to confirm a report that the human remains were those of the Timpanogots' chief Black Hawk who had died in 1870 and had been buried in the same approximate location.

The 'Timpanogos Ute' Misidentity The Timpanogos are not Utes and never were.

The Utah Black Hawk War Legacy The Black Hawk War is Utah's most tragic legacy. Native people in Utah suffer from generational trauma because of Mormon colonization.

In Remembrance: Black Hawk War Veterans

List of "American Indian" battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans

General Topics

Congressional Acts Governing First Nations There was a series of congressional acts designed to diminish tribal lands, or reservations, the Dawes Allotment Act 1887, the Reorganization Act 1934, the Termination Act 1953, Then came the boarding schools and the LDS Church Indian placement program 1954. The Self Determination Act 1970, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1978.

THE UTAH BLACK HAWK WAR FACTS Interesting facts about the Black Hawk War of Utah and the Timpanogos Indians from 1847 to 1873 from Phillip B Gottfredson's research journal.

Phillip B Gottfredson - commentary

We Can Forgive... But Never Forget We assume that the Native peoples have since been given every opportunity to succeed, that "it's their own damn fault," as some say. All I can say is 'tell a lie often enough and it becomes the truth.'

Truth In Education For All True First Nation history needs to be included in Utah's school curriculum, but its not...why?

Native American Protocols and Ethics When I was invited to live with a Shoshone family one of the first things I was taught was Native American protocols.

RUSSEL MEANS "For America to Live, Europe Must Die"

LDS Admit to Mountain Meadows Massacre In an article that appeared in the church's Ensign magazine, church historian Richard E. Turley gives what is said to be the church's official account of the Massacre.

Nathan Chasing Horse is a person I won't forget I can't recall there being a moment in my life when I was so spritually overwhelmed.

I spent a day talking to a Dine' medicine man Well, we carried on a conversation non stop for six hours at a truck stop in the middle of nowhere.

National Museum of the American Indian where Gottfredson began his research journey.

Heart of Mayan Country My journey to San Pedro in 2012 was to research the historical, and spiritual connection between North and South American Native peoples.


The following video & Podcast collection has been assembled to help further our understanding of the Native American perspective and the Black Hawk War in Utah.

Why is it important to say "settler colonialism" instead of "westward expansion"?

The Black Hawk War: Utah's Forgotten Tragedy Researched and produced by Phillip B Gottfredson (video)

Bear River Massacre Memorial 155th Anniversary January 29, 2018 (video)

Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery by Steven Newcomb (video)

PODCAST Mary Murdock Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, and Phillip B Gottfredson live podacst with host Jay Winter Nightwolf in a candid conversation about the Timpanogos Nation and the Black Hawk War of Utah.

P.B. Gottfredson - BookStore lists of more than 50 books & Videos(nonfiction) for historians, educators, students, and enthusiasts.

Source Material and Phillip B Gottfredson's Biography


Much of the material found on this website comes from Peter Gottfredson who lived with the Timpanogos during the Black Hawk War. Peter is a great-grandfather of Phillip B Gottfredson.

Indian Depredations in Utah Author Peter Gottfredson MENUPeter Gottfredson's Book Indian Depredations In Utah.

Peter's Autobiography

Peter & his brother Hans In The Indian Camps

EXCERPTS from my great-grandfather Peter Gottfredson his book Indian Depredations in Utah, which is one of the oldest firsthand accounts of the Black Hawk War in Utah. He describes the wars between Mormon settlers and the Indians of Utah that occured between the years 1847 to 1872.

Eulogy to Peter Gottfredson 1934

SALT LAKE TRIBUNE ARTICLE by historian Will Bagley


The Land Of The Lamanites

The Danites

List of "American Indian" battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans

News Articles Archive past news articles from our News Page.


1866 Map of the Black Hawk War See where the battles took place during the war. Phillip never finished this map, but has some good information.

Tribal Locations in America Past and Present Map

Gary Price with Phillip B Gottfredson with statue of Timpanogos Chief Wakara in backgroundNever before have we seen Utah's Black Hawk War through the eyes of the indigenous peoples of Utah. In "My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace," Phillip Gottfredson weaves a tapestry of raw, unfiltered revelations of the Mormon's extermination of indigenous peoples of Utah, exposing the heart-wrenching realities of racial conflict, the fragility of life, and the indomitable spirit of the Timpanogos peoples as they weathered the storm spanning 27 years until the bitter end. Get your copy now!

Gary Lee Price sculptor with Phillip B Gottfredson author