The Utah Black Hawk War & Settler Colonialism

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Easy access to our extensive collection of topics & stories about the Utah Black Hawk War organized chronologically by date and category. If you are looking for specific information please enter keywords (s) in our search tool above (example: Chief Sanpitch).

Settler Colonialism

The Doctrine of Discovery 1493 The following explains the Doctrine of Discovery gave Christians and governments a nefarious legal and moral justification to invade and occupy Native American land.

VIDEO: CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF DISCOVERY: by Steve Newcomb Published on Feb. 2, 2016, Steven Newcomb, Author of Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery" addresses the Spotlight of Indigenous Peoples plenary at the 2015 Parliament of the World's Religions in Salt Lake City, Utah on Oct. 19.

Manifest Destiny The 1832 Supreme Court declared the Indian Removal Act unconstitutional, but the damage already caused to First Nations was irreversible. In time, the Doctrine of Discovery would become Manifest Destiny to empower Settler-Colonialism. "With a bible in one hand, and a gun in the other they came to save the heathans from hell... and get rich."

Why is it important to say "settler colonialism" instead of "westward expansion"?

Timeline of the Black Hawk War & Biographies

Timpanogos Nation Biography: The Black Hawk War , is a detailed synopsis of historical events in Utah from 1776 and the Dominguez and Escalante expedition, the arrival of Mormon colonists in 1847, and the forced removal of the Timpanogos Nation to the Uinta Valley Reservation in 1873, etc.

The Timpanogos Nation is Shoshone - Utah Black Hawk War The Timpanogos are not enrolled members of the Ute Tribe and never were.

Utah Black Hawk War Timeline : Detailed timeline of "Utah Indian Wars," and Congressional Acts from 1847 to 1978.

The Utah Black Hawk War

1849-50 Battle Creek Canyon & Fort Utah Massacres, and the LDS "Extermination Order" of the Timpanogos Nation. Pleasant Grove and Provo.

Death of Squash Head 1851 Springville

Richville Raided 1851 Richfield

1853, Gunnison Massacre near Hinkley, Millard County

1853 Seven Timpanogos Deaths By Execution Nephi

1853 The Walker War Living descendants of Timpanogos Chief Wakara talk about their ancestor in a discussion with Phillip B Gottfredson. They explain "Wakara is misrepresented in Mormon history."

1854 Brigham Young His "Proper Way To Treat The Indians" 

1855 Chief Wakara dies from poisoning

1856 The Tintic War Cedar Valley

1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre near St. George

1863 Bear River Massacre Cache Valley

1863 Chief Little Soldier attacks a platoon of soldiers at Pleasant Grove

1865 Grass Valley Massacre Glenwood near Fish Lake

1865 The Spanish Fork Treaty  (Black Hawk War Treaty)

1866 Circleville Massacre

1866 Chief Sanpitch father of Black Hawk murdered at Birch Creek near Sanpete, Utah

1866 The Old Peace Treaty Tree Ephraim

1866 Spanish Fork Diamond Creek Battle Because there are conflicting historical accounts regarding the Diamond Creek Battle, historian Phillip B Gottfredson spent considerable time researching on site where the battle took place to bring clarity to this important event.

1866 Chief Sowiette admonished his brothers not to fight

1867 Black Hawk meets with Indian agent Franklin The Chief knew what he was doing. Taking upon himself the agony of his people, Black Hawk handed Franklin his knife and would ask him to cut off his hair to symbolically demonstrate his sincerity in wanting peace.

1870 Battle At Gravely Ford, Utah Timpanogos Chief Black Hawk Mortally Wounded near Richfield.

Post War Period

1873 MEMORIAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF UTAH "Memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Utah" was prepared by the Legislature of Utah in 1873 and sent to the United States Congress. It is a bill asking Congress for reimbursement of over one-million dollars in expenses incurred by Brigham Young's private militia and the Nauvoo Legion, to exterminate the Indigenous population in Utah.

1919 Black Hawk's Gravesite Robbed

1996 Repatriation Of Chief Black Hawk's Remains The human remains and associated objects were accessions by the Museum of Latter-Day Saints Church History in 1919. At that time, a local physician attempted to confirm a report that the human remains were those of the Timpanogots' chief Black Hawk.

The Utah Black Hawk War Legacy Native people in Utah suffer from generational trauma because of Mormon settlers colonization.

In Remembrance: Black Hawk War Chiefs & Veterans

List of "American Indian" battles in the war of exterminating Native Americans.

Research and Commentary

James Leonard Pritchett, a great-grandson of Chief Tabby of the Timpanogos Nation of Utah. Timpanogos Chief Tabby's name was not Tabby-To-Kwanah, or Tabiuna, and he was not Chief of the Uintah and Whiteriver Utes. All you need to do is ask Tabby's descendant- James Pritchett.

Congressional Acts Governing First Nations There was a series of congressional acts designed to diminish tribal lands, or reservations, the Dawes Allotment Act 1887, the Reorganization Act 1934, the Termination Act 1953, Then came the boarding schools and the LDS Church Indian placement program 1954. The Self Determination Act 1970, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act 1978.

THE UTAH BLACK HAWK WAR FACTS Interesting facts about the Black Hawk War of Utah and the Timpanogos Indians from 1847 to 1873 from Phillip B Gottfredson's research journal.

Source Material and Phillip B Gottfredson's Biography Phillip B Gottfredson, a well-known author of Black Hawk's Mission of Peace, specializes in the Black Hawk War of Utah between the Timpanogos Nation and the early Mormon colonialization of Utah.

We Can Forgive But Never Forget We assume that the Native peoples have since been given every opportunity to succeed, that "it's their own damn fault," as some say. Tell a lie often enough and it becomes the truth.

Truth In Education True First Nation history needs to be included in Utah's school curriculum, but its not...why?

Native American Protocols and Ethics When I was invited to live with a Shoshone family one of the first things I was taught was Native American protocols.

RUSSEL MEANS "For America to Live, Europe Must Die"

LDS Admit to Mountain Meadows Massacre In an article that appeared in the church's Ensign magazine, church historian Richard E. Turley gives what is said to be the church's official account of the Massacre.

Nathan Chasing Horse is a person I won't forget I can't recall there being a moment in my life when I was so spritually overwhelmed.

I spent a day talking to a Dine' medicine man Well, we carried on a conversation non stop for six hours at a truck stop in the middle of nowhere.

National Museum of the American Indian where Gottfredson began his research journey.

Heart of Mayan Country My journey to San Pedro in 2012 to research the historical, and spiritual connection between North and South American Indigenous peoples.


The following video & Podcast collection has been assembled to help further our understanding of the Native American perspective and the Black Hawk War in Utah.

The Black Hawk War: Utah's Forgotten Tragedy Researched and produced by Phillip B Gottfredson (video)

Bear River Massacre Memorial 155th Anniversary January 29, 2018 (video)

Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery by Steven Newcomb (video)

PODCAST Mary Murdock Meyer Chief Executive of the Timpanogos Nation, and Phillip B Gottfredson live podacst with host Jay Winter Nightwolf in a candid conversation about the Timpanogos Nation and the Black Hawk War of Utah.

P.B. Gottfredson - BookStore lists of more than 50 books & Videos(nonfiction) for historians, educators, students, and enthusiasts.


Much of the material found on this website comes from Peter Gottfredson who lived with the Timpanogos during the Black Hawk War, and a friend of Timpanogos Chief Black Hawk. Peter is a great-grandfather of Phillip B Gottfredson.

Indian Depredations in Utah Author Peter Gottfredson MENUPeter Gottfredson's Book Indian Depredations In Utah.

Peter's Autobiography

Peter & his brother Hans In The Indian Camps

EXCERPTS from Peter Gottfredson his book Indian Depredations in Utah, which is one of the oldest firsthand accounts of the Black Hawk War in Utah. He describes the wars between Mormon settlers and the Indians of Utah that occured between the years 1847 to 1872.

Eulogy to Peter Gottfredson 1934

SALT LAKE TRIBUNE ARTICLE by historian Will Bagley


Only In The Land Of The Lamanites The Mormons believe that people of dark skin is a curse. However, by joining the church their skin will turn white.

The Danites

List of "American Indian" battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans

News Articles Archive past news articles from our News Page.


Copyright ©Phillip B Gottfredson 2022 All Rights Reserved

Phillip B Gottfredson with Gary Lee Price

"I finished reading YOUR UNBELIEVABLE BOOK your experiences blew me away and I love how you dovetailed your views & everything so beautifully together!!! WOW WOW WOWWW!!!" - Gary Lee Price

"Mr. Gottfredson has done an amazing job of telling this story with passion and honesty. Bravo, Sir !" -Barely Ablemann, Washington DC

HandGet the book BLACK HAWK'S MISSION OF PEACE ! (See reviews)